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Nutrition SCC

CHO,PRO,Lipids,Vitamins,Minerals,Water

QuestionAnswer
List the elements that compose carbohydrates. List the elements that compose carbohydrates. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Identify the two basic categories of carbohydrates. Simple (monosaccharides and disaccharides) Complex (polysaccharides)
Define monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. Monosaccharides: Single molecule of sugar Disaccharides: Two monosaccharides, one of which is glucose Polysaccharide: many sugar molecules
List the monosaccharides or “simple” sugars. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Name the simple sugar found in fruits, honey and sap. Fructose
Name the form in which sugar circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose (dextrose)
All sugars are converted into which monosaccharide. Glucose
Name the simple sugar produced in human digestion from lactose. Galactose
Name the principle carbohydrate found in milk. Lactose
Name the disaccharides. Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
Name the disaccharide that is an intermediate product of starch digestion and thereby a significant metabolic carbohydrate Maltose
Name the disaccharide that is table sugar Sucrose
Identify major sources of carbohydrate. Plant foods (fruits, veggies, grains, beans) Lactose from milk
Name the storage form of excess glucose and the organ/tissues of storage. glycogen liver, muscles, adipose tissues muscles use own glycogen for glucose energy in periods of fasting
Identify the major food sources of starch. grains products, rice, corn, legumes, potatoes, and other fruits and veggies.
List the benefits of dietary fiber. Delays gastric empting, filling of fullness, may moderate blood glucose, stimulates peristalsis, solifies watery stools, and soften stools. Also binds to cholesterol compounds for excretion in the feces(Decreases constipation)Good solid poo!
Which enzyme begins starch digestion in the mouth. Salivary amylase (ptyalin)
What are the enzymes on the surface of the small intestinal cells which breakdown carbohydrate? sucrase, maltase, lactase
Identify the pancreatic enzyme which breaks down carbohydrate. pancreatic amylase
Note the energy value of carbohydrates and the daily recommended allowance of carbohydrate. 4kcal/gram, 45-65% of daily caloric intake,Incomplete CHO 10% or less, Complete CHO is 50%. 130g in adults and children
Identify the elements which comprise protein. What are the end products of the digestion of carbohydrates? Glucose (fructose and galactose are converted to glucose in the liver after transport via the portal vein.)
Examples of food sources of complex carbohydrates. cereal, rice, pasta, potatoes, dry beans, carrots and corn
Galactose and Glucose Lactose (milk sugar) Only animal derived source of CHO.
Identify the elements which comprise protein. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Define amino acid. Buiding blocks of protein. Carbon core adam with one site holding hydrogen, one site holding amine group(NH2), and one site holding acid group (COOH).
Define dipeptide, tripeptide and polypeptide. dipeptide = 2 amino acids bound together. tripeptide= 3 amino acids bound together. polypeptide= 10 or more amino acids bound together.
List the essential amino acids. The amino acids that the body cannot produce through transamination.
What are the essential amino acids? There are 9. Histadine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine,Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan,and Valine.
Define complete protein and give examples. Complete Protein: A protein comprised of all essential amino acids in amounts needed by the body to support tissue and growth repair. eg Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt.
Define incomplete protein and give examples Incomplete Protein: A protein that is low in one or more essential amino acids. eg grains, nuts, beans, corn, peas, and seeds.
Define the following terms regarding vegetarian diets: lacto-ovo-vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and pure vegan. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: Vegetarians whose diets include milk products and eggs Lacto-vegetarians: vegetarians whose diets include milk and milk products. Semi-Vegetarian: Occasional meat eaters Pure Vegan: People who only eat plants.
Outline the functions of protein in the body. Plays an essential role in facilitating growth and repair of body tissues. Facilitates chemical reactions in the body. Maintains homeostatsis. Maintains fluid and electrolyte balances. Immune response. Maintains acid/base balance. Provides energy.
Note the energy value of protein and the daily recommended allowance for protein. 4kcal/gm. 0.8gm/kg/body weight.
Identify factors which increase protein needs. Growth periods, tissue loss, surgery
Name the organ which begins the digestion of protein. stomach (pepsin)
Name the pancreatic enzyme which aids in protein digestion. Tripsin
Name the vitamin that aids in the absorption of amino acids. B6 (pyridoxine)
Identify the elements which compose fats. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Fats are glycerides. Define monoglyceride, diglyceride, and triglyceride. Monoglyceride: glycerol molecule with one fatty acid attached. Diglyceride: glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids attached. Triglyceride: Class of lipids composed of gycerol molecules with three fatty acids attached.
Define saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats and give an example of each. Saturated: solid at room temperature, have straight config, no double bonds. Occurs natuarally in most food fats.
Give examples of starchy vegetables and watery vegetables Starchy: Corn, pinto beans, lintils, peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash,yam Watery: asparagus, bean sprouts, carrots, broccoli, green beans, greens, okra, tomato.
Define an “essential” fatty acid fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed by food.
List the essential fatty acids linoleic acids (omega3) alpha-linolenic (omega6)
Name the predominant lipid in the diet and the human body. Triglyceride: major storage form of fat of body, 98% of fat in foods are triglycerides.
List the roles of phospholipids in the body. Act as emulsifiers, keep fats suspended in blood and other body fluids. They are a component of all cell membranes that provide structure and help transport fat soluble substances across cell membrane. Precursers of prostaglandins. Lectichin
Name the most common sterol in the body. List its major functions in the human body. Cholesterol. Is found in all cell membranes and in myelin; brain nerve cells are rich in cholesterol. From cholesterol bile acids, steroid hormones, and vit. D are formed. Cholesterol does not form energy.
List major food sources of cholesterol. liver and egg yolks. (Meat)
Define lipoprotein, chylomicrons lipoprotein: A complex molecule made up of lipid and protein, the way lipids can travel in the blood. chylomicrons: lipoproteins that transport absorbed lipids form intestinal wall through lymph and into the blood stream.
Define LDLs and HDLs. LDL: transporter of cholestrol from the liver to the tissues of the body. (bad) HDL:The high-density lipoproteins transport cholesterol from the tissues of the body to the liver so it can be gotten rid of (in the bile).(good)
Identify the omega-3 fatty acids. Fish oils, EPA, DHA, flaxseed, canola, soybean, walnut oils, fatty fish, salmon, anchovy, sardines, herring, lake trout, and mackerel.
Identify the omega-6 fatty acids Plant oils, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean oils, poultry fat, nuts, and seeds.
Define a “trans” fatty acid. unsaturated fatty acids that have at least one double bond whose hydrogen atoms are on the opposite sides of the double bond.
Differentiate between “visible” and “hidden” fats in food sources. Visable fats are those which have been seperated and can be readily identified and measured such as lard, butter, margerine, shortening, salad and cooking oils.
Differentiate between “visible” and “hidden” fats in food sources. Hidden fats are those who cannot be seperated from their sources. Examples included milk, eggs, cheese, meats, cereal, and nuts.
List the functions of fat in food and in the human body. They provide energy, protect vital organs, insulate against cold environmental temperature, facilitate absorption of fat soluable vitamins.
Identify the function of bile in fat digestion. Bile is a emulsifier, breaks down fat and decreases surface tension. Bile also increases surface area.
Name the hormone secreted by intestinal wall glands in the presence of fat in the duodenum. Cholcystokinin, hormone secreted by glands in intestinal wall by the duodenum. Contraction of gallbladder and cystic duct-duodunum secretes CCK
Identify the pancreatic enzyme which digests fat. Lipase
Note the energy value of fat and its recommended daily allowance. 9kcal/g 25-30% total caloric intake
Identify two basic characteristics that distinguish vitamins from the energy nutrients. Vitamins are individual molecules not long chains of molecules linked together. Vitamins do not provide energy, but are needed for metabolism of energy. Vitamins are needed in microgram or milligram quantities, not gram.
List the fat soluble vitamins. List the water soluble vitamins. A,E,D,K: fat soluable. B1,B2,B3,B6,B12, Biotin, Vit C, Pantothenic acid, and folate.
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored in the human body? Liver/adipose tissue
List major food sources for vitamin A. Liver, milk, butter, cream, egg yolk, fortified milk, margarine, cereals
List food sources for beta-carotene (vitamin A precursor). green leafy veggies, broccoli, carrots, peaches, pumpkins, mangoes, watermelon, and apricots.
Briefly discuss the metabolic conversion of vitamin D. When we take in vitamin D from food or sunlight, it is converted first in the liver to the form 25(OH) D and then in the kidney to 1, 25 (OH) D.
List the three ways vitamin D maintains blood concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Stimulates calcium and phosphorus absorption from the GI tract. Metabolizes calcium and phosphorus from the bone as needed to maintain normal serum levels. Stimulates the kidneys to retain calcium and phosphorus.
List major food sources of vitamin D. Liver, fatty fish, egg yolks, fort milk, cereal and margarine
List major food sources of vitamin E. veggie oils, margarine, salad dressings, foods with oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, dark leafy veggies, whole grains, fortified cereals.
List the chief function of vitamin K in the human body. Vit k is a precursor of prothrombin. Essential for blood clotting and bone protein that regulates bone calcium
List major food sources of vit K grean leafy veggies, liver, egg, beggies, cabbage family
How is excess vitamin C excreted from the body? Urine
Outline the major functions of vitamin C in the human body and list major food sources of this vitamin. Builds strong capillary walls, forms calcium, prevents free radicals from damaging the body. Ex orange, citrus, lemons, tomatoes.
B-complex vitamins play an important function in energy metabolism and tissue building. What is this major function? Vit Bcomplex are essential for growth development and metabolic processes, which occur continuously throughout the body. Vit aids in the absorption of amino acids
List the major food sources of the B-complex vitamins. whole grains, enriched breads, fortified cereals, liver, nuts, wheat germ, pork, dried peas, beans, milk, diary products, eggs, meat, green leafy veggies, orange juice, fish, poultry
Which vitamin may result in night blindness if intake is insufficient? Vitamin A
Which vitamin plays a major role in building and maintaining healthy epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes? Vit A
Childhood blindness due to drying and hardening of the cornea (xerophthalmia) occurs in this vitamin deficiency. Vit A deficiency
Which vitamin plays an important role in bone mineralization and maintenance? Calcium
Which vitamin is most toxic of all vitamins when taken in excess? Vit A and D
Which vitamin is one of the body’s major antioxidants? Vit C
Toxicity of this vitamin may interfere with the blood-clotting action of vitamin K.
What is catabolism the burning of glucose for energy
What is anabolism using glucose to build other compounds
These vitamins serve as coenzymes in energy building Vit b complex
This vitamin prevents neurotube defects folate
Created by: 1161798020