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Physiology Exam I

Physiology study of, or processes involved in, body functions
Physiology is the most _______ of all disciplines. integrative
horizontal integration across disciplines <---->
vertical integration across levels of organization
regulation maintaining or changing of physiological function
mechanism steps undertaken in a physiological process
adaptation a trait that enhances fitness as a result of natural selection
design integration of structure and function to achieve and evolved & optimal level of performance
performance functional ability of a physiological system; outcome of design
Basic homeostatic pathway external/internal condition --> internal change --> change is sensed --> response is made --> change is corrected --> response ends
Paracrince induces a response in adjoining cell
autocrine induces response in same cell
What is most common, negative or positive feedback? negative feedback
Give an example of negative and positive feedback Negative: regulation of blood pressure Positive: Stimulation of pitocin
Are homeotatic systems maintains at specific points or ranges? ranges
Four biomolecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, protiens & nucleotides
Which biomolecule is most abundant? carbohydrates
Maltose glucose + glucose
sucrose glucose + fructose
Which form of carbohydrate is stored in plants for energy starch
Which form of carbohydrate is stored in animals for energy glycogen
How does cellulose differ from starch & glycogen? it is extremely rigid and its chains are interlinked making it difficult to catabolize
90% of lipids are in what specific arrangement? triglyceride
What chemically & physically defines a saturated fat? form a more dense matrix; made up entirely of C-C single bonds saturated by H; known as a "fat" & is solid at RT
What chemically & physically defines an unsaturated fat? double bond C=C cause kinks and bends allowing more room for flow in the matrix; known as an "oil" & is liquid at RT
Amino Acids building blocks of proteins, 20 common
essential amino acid amino acid not produced naturally in the body but is essential for life; must be derived from diet; there are 10 eAA
nucleotide nitrogenous base (pyrimidines or purines) + sugar; building blocks for DNA, RNA & ATP
membranous organelles of a cell mitochondria, ER, golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes
nonmembranous organelles of a cell ribosomes, centrosomes, cilia & flagella, microtubules & microfilaments
Density of mitochondria of a cell reflects its ________ __________. energetic capacity
Where can the highest concentration of mitochondria/cell be found? in smooth muscle of the intestine
initial site of protein & lipid synthesis endoplasmic reticulum
packages proteins manufactured by the ER golgi
what path does a protein take moving from the ER through the golgi? 1. synthesized in ER 2. moves to golgi via transport vessicle 3. moves through the golgi, facilitated by transfer vessicles 4. exits golgi via secretory, storage or membrane vessicles
lysosomes break down damaged organelles, bacteria & food
What structures help form the cytoskeleton & what role do they play? 1. tubulin forms microtubules: motility 2. actin forms microfilaments: contraction 3. protein subunits for intermediate filiaments: anchorage
Nucleous contains DNA, double membrane & nucleolous
Energy extrapolated from food is equal to ________________________________________ . energy expended and saved
study of energy flux energetics
forms of energy heat, electrical & mechanical
how is energy transformed? potential to kinetic, but not with 100% efficiency
1st law of thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed
What is the primary form of energy for energetics? chemical bond energy
how is bond energy captured? potential energy within a bond is transformed to kinetic and released when the bond is broken, giving off heat
enzymes proteins the serve to increase the rate of reaction
hydrylase enzyme in which H2O is used to aid in catalyzing the reaction
which metabolic pathways ONLY occur in the presence of O2? TCA & ETC
Which metabolic pathway can occur either aerobically or anaerobically? Glycolysis
Net outcome of Glycolysis 2 pyruvate + 2H2O 2 ATP* 2 NADH + 2H+ *4 ATP generated, but 2 required to start cycle
net outcome of TCA 2 ATP 8 NADH 2 FADH2
In ETC, which complexes allow only the movement of electrons? Complex II, CoQ, & CytC
Proton motive force concentration gradient of [H+] across a membrane that allows the movement of [H+] back into the matrix by diffusing from high to low concentration
ATPase rotor & rod complex that changes configuration as H+ moves through it, allowing ADP & phosphate to combine to form ATP
How many ATP molecules correlate to NADH & FADH2? NADH = 3 ATP FADH2 = 2 ATP
What is the maximum (or optimal) number of ATP produced in oxidative phosphorylation & what cycle is responsible for them? Total = 38 Glycolysis = 2ATP TCA = 2 ATP ETC = 34 ATP (8 NADH from TCA x3, 2 NADH from glycolysis x3 & 2 FADH2 from TCA x2)
where do AA enter into glyc/Krebs/ETC? anywhere
how are fatty acids oxidized? broken into 2C chains & enter Krebs; glycerols enter glycolysis
what is the net production of ATP for an anaerobe? 2 ATP from glycolysis
cell membrane 1. physical barrier 2. controls entry of ions, elimination of waste & release of secretory products 3. communication 4. support
Molecules found in or on bilayer cholesterol, peripheral & integral proteins, glycolipids, glycoproteins, carbohydrates
channel protein movement through protein, with concentration gradient
transport protein undergoes change in conformation, moves against concentration gradient
receptor protein binds with ligand, changes function of the cell
enzyme catalyzes reactions
MHC complex important in self regognition
linker protein maintains cellular integrity
passive transport includes diffusion & facilitated diffusion; no energy is required; movement is from high concentration to low
active transport required ATP; moves from low concentration to high (against concentration gradient)
voltage gated channel responds to change in electron gradient across the membrane
ligand gated channel responds to some chemical contact
mechanical gated channel responds to some mechanical force or signal (i.e. stretching)
mediated transport involves the aid of membrane protein that experiences a configuration change
three properties of mediated transport 1. Specificity: transporters are specific 2. competition: preferred molecule will out-compete others 3. saturation: there is a maximum transport rate regardless of concentration
symport molecules carried in the same direction in AT
antiport molecules carried in opposite direction in AT
Primary AT requires ATP; ATP --> ADP results in some change in configuration EX: Na+/K+ pump
Secondary AT no direct use of ATP; binding of one molecule induces a change & allows another molecule to be a transporter *ALL cotransporter systems
Membrane potential at the membrane, cells are kept at a constant state of chemical and electrical disequalibrium
Resting membrane potential steady state of potential energy established across a membrane due to the difference in chemical or electrical charge *outside (++) inside (--)
hyperpolarization stimulus opens K+ channels; K+ moves out & cell membrane becomes more neg inside
depolarization stimulus opens Na+ channels; Na+ moves in & inside becomes more (+)
graded potential 1. region on the dendrites are stimulated & ion channels open 2. Na+ enters cell 3. wave of depolarization spreads across the cell body (rock in pond) 4. If wave reaches trigger zone (base of axon) and threshold (-50mv) is achieved, an AP is triggered
Action Potential caused by the movement of Na+ & K+ through opened channels -do not vary -do not lose strength -all or none
Steps of AP 1. resting state: Na/K channels closed 2. threshold: Na opened 3. depolarization: overshoot 4. repolarization: Na closes & K opens 5. resting membrane potential
membrane refractory period time that a mambrane having experienced an AP cannot experience another one; establishes onw-way directionality
what influences speed of conduction 1. diameter of axon (big = fast) 2. resistance to leak
What is the purpose of myelin? besides acting as an insulator: 1. speed 2. uses less energy
Saltatory conduction the "jumping" action of ions from node to node
Multiple sclerosis loss of myelin
neurotoxins block Na/K channels, limiting neural signaling
anesthetics block Na channels, sensation of pain is not transmitted
synapse junction of a neuron with another neuron
3 components of synapse 1. presynaptic cell 2. synaptic cleft 3. post-synaptic cell
gap junctions allow the passages of electrical impulses from the cytoplams of one cell directly to the cytoplasm of another -in nervous system & cardiac muscle
excitatory synapse trigger the opening of Na & closing of K
inhibitory synapse triggers opening of K & Cl,