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M6 10-10 Endocrine

Mary K's Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
Endo- Within
Exo- Outside
Hyper- increased/above
Para- A disease or condition characterized by an UNDER SECRETION of thyroid hormones.
Cretinism dwarfism caused by HYPOsecretion of the thyroid gland.
Cushing's Syndrome condition caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
Diabetes Insipidus HYPOSECRETION of ADH in which large volumes of urine are formed.
Endocrine Secreting into the blood or tissue fluid.
Exocrine Secreting into a duct.
Exophthalmos abnormal protusion of the eyes.
Gigantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone during the early years of life. = GIGANTIC KIDS!!!
Glucocorticoids Hormones that influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Gluconeogenesis Formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds.
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Hirsutism Excessive hair growth, especially in women.
Hormone Substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood.
Mineralocorticoids Hormone that influences mineral salt metabolism. Secreted by adrenal cortex; aldosterone is the chief mineralocorticoid.
Myxedema Condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults.
Parathyroid Glands Set of glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland.
Prostaglandins group of naturally occuring fatty acids that affect many body functions.
Target Cells Organ or cell acted on by a particular hormone and reponding to it.
Virilism MASCULINIZATION of a female. YARRR!!!!
_________ perform general functions of communication and control but a slower long lasting type of control than that provided by nerve impulses. Hormones
What are the cells acted on by hormones called?` TARGET CELLS
Organs containing target cells are called? Target Organs
Hormone secretion is controlled by? Homeostatic feedback
Prostaglandins (PGs) Powerful substances found in a wide variety of body tissues.
PGs are often produced in a _____. TISSUE
PGs duffuse only a _____distance to act on cells in that tissue. SHORT
PGs influence many body functions including: 1. Respiration 2. Blood Pressure 3. Gastrointestinal Secretions 4. Reproduction
TSH is the abbreviation for? Thyroid-stimulating hormone
ACTH is? Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
FSH stands for? Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
GH is? Growth Hormone
Prolactin Lactogenic hormone....MILK!
TSH stimulates growth of the? Thyroid gland and ALSO stimulates it to secrete thyroid hormone.
ACTH stimulates? growth of the adrenal cortex and stimulates it to secrete glucocorticoids.
FSH initiates growth of____. Ovarian follicles each moth in the ovary and stimulates one or more follicles to develop to the stage of maturity and ovulation.
LH acts with____to stimulate estrogen secretion by developing follicles. FSH
Sperm Production in the male is stimulated by___. FSH
Posterior Pituitary Gland AKA Neurohpypophysis
Anterior Pituitary Gland AKA Adenohypophysis
ADH is responsible for? Accelertaing water reabsorption from urine in the kidney tubules into the blood, thereby decreasing urine secretion.
Oxytocin *STIMULATES the pregnant uterus to contract. **MAY initiate labor. ***Causes glandular cells of the breast to release milk into ducts.
Where is ADH and Oxytocin produced?? Hypothalmus
After production in the hypothalmus hormones pass along_____ into the pituitary gland. AXONS
What is the most EPIC word I've learned from SPC Ancona? This is TESTABLE (unless you own a 30 sided dice and induce suicidal thoughts everytime you speak what?) AHHHH!!! I'll never tell!!!
True or False? The placenta functions as a temporary endocrine gland. TRUE :)!!!!
What are the three hormones that are excreted from the adrenal cortex 1. Glucocorticoids - GCs 2. Mineralocorticoids - MCs 3. Sex Hormones
How many layers are there in the adrenal cortex? 3
What does the OUTER layer of the adrenal cortex secrete? MCs
The MIDDLE layer of the adrenal cortex secretes what? GCs
The INNER layer of the adrenal cortex secretes....??? SEX Hormones (giggity!)
Why do mineralocorticoids increase sodium and decrease body potassium concentrations? MCs accelerate kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium and excrete potassium.
GCs help maintain normal blood glucose how? GCs increse glucogenesis which is the formation of "new" glucose from amino acids produced by the breakdown of proteins.
True or False GCs play an essential part in maintaining normal blood pressure. TRUE!!!
GCs make it possible for Epinephrine and Norepinephrine maintain a normal degree of vasoconstriction which helps stabilize______. Blood pressure
GCs act with Epinephrine and Norepinephrine to produce an _______effect. To bring about normal recovery from infalmmations of various kinds. ANTI-Inflamatory
What do GCs produce to bring about a decreazse in the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Which...decreases the amount of antibodies formed??? Anti-Immunity and Anti-Allergy Effect
GCs are released quickly when the body is thrown into a condition of______. Stress
Adrenal Medulla produces 2 hormones, they are... Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Name the 2 hormones in the Pancreatic Islets Glucagon and Insulin
What are the 2 structures of the ovaries? 1. Ovarian Follicles 2. Corpus Luteum
Where is testosterone created? In the interstitial cells of the testes!!
The effects of testosterone are?? 1. Maturation of external genetals 2. Beard growth 3. Voice changes at puberty 4. Development of musculature and body contours typical of the male.
Thymosin The hormone made in the THYMUS
Thymosin is important because... It plays an important role in the development and function of the body's immune system.
3 HORMONES associated with the Placenta are?? Chorionic Gonadotropins, Estrogens, and Progesterone.
Pineal Gland A small gland near the roof of the 3rd Ventricle of the brain.
What happens to the pineal gland as we age? Becomes fibrous and calcified
Why is the pineal gland called the "third eye" ?? It has influence of the secretory activity related to the amount of light entering the eyes.
The Pineal Gland secretes... Melatonin
Melatonin inhibits what? Ovarian activity
Melatonin regulates the body's internal....? Clock!
The stomach lining produces?? Ghrelin
What does Ghrelin do? Affects appetite and metabolism
ANH is... Atrial Natriuretic Hormone which stimulates sodium loss from the kidneys.
Fat storing cells secrete____. Leptin - which controls how full or hungry we feel.
Two major classes of hormones are: 1. Steroid Hormones 2. Non-Steroid Hormones
Corticoids – are hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex.
Cushing’s syndrome – is a condition caused by the hyper-secretion of? glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
Exophthalmos – Abnormal protrusion of the eyes
Glucogenesis – is the formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds.
Hirsutism – is an excess growth of hair, especially in women.
Myxedema – is a condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults.
2 systems are responsible for regulating homeostasis and various body functions: Endocrine and Nervous System
Corticoids – are hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex.
Cushing’s syndrome – is a condition caused by the hyper-secretion of? glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
Exophthalmos – Abnormal protrusion of the eyes
Glucogenesis – is the formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds.
Hirsutism – is an excess growth of hair, especially in women.
Myxedema – is a condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults.
2 systems are responsible for regulating homeostasis and various body functions: Endocrine and Nervous System
Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Pancreas 5 Endocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands play vital roles in: Regulate Metabolic Processes Reproduction Development Growth
Hormones are steroids, amines, peptides, proteins, or glycoproteins.
Lipid soluble & pass through cell membrane. Receptors are located in the target cell’s nucleus. The hormone-receptor Steroid Hormones:
Examples of Steroid Hormones are: Estrogen Testosterone Aldosterone Cortisol
Non-Steroidal Hormones Binds to target cells’ membrane & activates the G-protein.
Prostaglandins do great stuffs like.... Relax smooth muscle. Contract smooth muscle. Influence blood pressure. Influence inflammation.
Mommy where do Tropic Hormones come from???? Tropic hormones from hypothalamus control secretions.
Created by: 670441040