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Entomology Exam 1

Systema Natura written by Carolus Linnaeus and gave each specie a Latin name
Latin Names consist of two latin or latinized words. the first word is the genus and is capitalized. the second word is the species and is not capitalized. The entire latin name is either underlined or italicized.
Hierarchy of Groups Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. *kids-playing-chess-on-freeways-get-smashed*
Taxon a group of one or more organisms which a taxonomist recognizes as a unit. Each formally known taxon has a name
How many species of insects are there? about a million. according to EO Wilson there are about 900,000 named and described species. According to the Smithsonian thats 80% of all the world's species
The Origin of a Species written but Charles Darwin, introduced the concept of evolution and natural selection
Evolution involves change in heritable traits through the generations.Evolutionary change has been going on for billions of years and is the source of biodiversity
Natural Selection determines which changes are preserved and which are eliminated. "Survival of the Fittest"
4 Main groups of Arthropoda Trilobita, Crustacea, Chelicerata, and Uniramia
Phylum Arthropoda bilaterally symmetrical, have an exoskeleton, segmented bodies, and jointed appendages. More than 83% of all described animal species are arthropods
Subphylum Trilobita lived in the sea 300 million years ago (now extinct) over 20,000 different species. Have 3 body regions or "lobes" giving them their name
Subphylum Crustacea about 42,000 species, have jointed appendages for specific uses. Include shrimp, crayfish, woodlice, and pillbugs
Subphylum Chelicerata have chelicerae, have 2 body regions: prosoma and opisthosoma, a pair of pedipalps, and eight legs. This group includes horseshoe crabs and arachnids
tagmata body regions
chelicerae the anteriormost pair of appendages of the prosoma of Chelicerata. Chelicerae come in pairs, and some are fangs.
Pedipalps the second pair of appendages of the prosoma. may be simple tactile organs resembling the legs, as in female spiders, or large grasping structures, as in scorpions.
Prosoma the front body segment of chelicerata. sometimes called the cephalothorax
Opisthosoma the back body segment of chelicerata. sometimes called the abdomen. this is where the digestive and reproductive organs are found
Class Arachnida 1 of the 2 majors groups of chelicerata. Include tailless whip scorpions, scorpions, daddy long-legs, mites, spiders, and ticks
Daddy Longlegs also known as Opiliones. eat decomposing organic material. Do not have venom glands, but have small defensive secretions. They are not spiders.
Mites Taxon Acari. there are thousands of different species. might be predacious, phytophagous, or parasitic. Most humans have follicle mites. Mites are abundant in woodland humus
Chigger the immature stage of certain mites. feed on amphibians, small mammals, birds and reptiles. Inject enzymes into the bite that break down the cells to form a "tissue slurpy." Will also feed on humans even though we are not their normal prey
Ticks Taxon Acari. 860 species of ectoparasites (blood feeding). Next to mosquitos the most important arthropod vector of pathogen that cause diseases that affect humans and animals.
Vectors organisms that transfer diseases from one organism to another
Spiders Order Aranea. 34,000 species. Predacious, but very few are a danger to humans. Venemous spiders that may harm humans include the black widow, the brown widow and the brown recluse.
Black Widow Black with red hourglass on the opisthosoma. leading cause of death from spider bites in the US. Venom causes pain, muscle spasms, respiratory failure, coma and death. Male is much smaller that the female. He transfers sperm to the female with pedipalps
Brown Recluse may be found in and around most homes.Their chelicerae are exceptionally strong. Their bite does not hurt initially but begins to burn after 30min. Bites not fatal. Have a violin shaped mark on the prosoma and 3 pairs of eyes.
Spider Reproduction females have slender pedipalps and Males have enlarged pedipalps. This is for sperm transfer.
Spermatophore a capsule of sperm. In many instances, the female will eat the greater portion of the spermatophore.
Spinnerets form sticky stands of silk. A combination of muscles and pulling by the spider force liquid silk through spigots. Silk is stronger than kevlar.
Hematophagous Arthropods feed on the blood of vertebrate animals. All have suctorial mouth parts adapted for sucking blood. Have special salivary enzymes. May transmit causative agents of disease from one animal to another
Blacklegged Tick part of arachnida, ectoparasite that feed son the blood of vertebrates. Respond to stimuli and climb onto host. 3-host life cycle. 1st instar: 6 legged nymph. 2nd instar: moults to 8 legged nymph finds 2nd host. 3rd instar: 8 legged adult, 3rd host
Lyme Disease leading cause to vector borne infectious illness in the US. Symptoms are flu-like with a bullseye rash called erythema migrans. Left untreated can spread to other body systems. Caused by a bacteria called a spirochete
Blacklegged Tick Physiology does not have a head. Capitulum is the head and bears pedipalps, chelicerae, and the hypostome
Hypostome what a tick uses to jab into its host. Has barbs that prevent the hypostome from coming out. Most ticks create a cement that holds the tick in so it can continue to feed
Blacklegged Tick Reproduction mate on the 3rd and final host. Male uses the captiulum to insert a spermatophore into the genital opening of the female. The size of the engorged female increases 100 times when impregnated. Female falls to the ground, lays her eggs and dies
Subphylum Uniramia have uniramous appendages, meaning they only have one branch. The two main groups of Uniramia are the Myriapoda and the Hexapoda.
Class Myriapoda tagmata= head and a mutlisegmented trunk. Important myriapodans are the Diplopoda (millipedes), the Chilopoda (centipedes).
Order Diplopoda Milipedes, about 10,000 species. Have a head and a multi-segmented trunk. Trunk segments occur in fused pairs called diplosegments which bear 2 pairs of legs. Milipedes are scavengers and some make defensive secretions
Oder Chilopoda Centipedes. about 3,00 species. 1 pair of legs per trunk segment. 15 to 191 pairs of legs. Front legs are modified poison fangs. sting may be painful but never fatal.
House Centipede have a distinct head, multisegmented trunk, and 15 pairs of legs. Poison fangs used for defense and immobilizing prey. The other legs are long and detachable. Found indoors and outdoors, commonly in bathtubs. Eat cockroaches, spiders, flies, moths
Exoskeleton all arthropods have an exoskeleton, which can also be called the integument. Serves as protection and sensory interface.
Epidermis the inner living cellular layer of the exoskeleton
Cuticle the outer, non-cellular layer of exoskeleton
Epicuticle the outermost layer of the cuticle. made of a was layer and a cement layer. Wax layer is the chief barrier to movement of water in or out of the insect's body. Cement layer covers the wax and protects it from abrasion.
Chitin the principal component of the procuticle, is a long-chain polymer
Sclerotization the darkening and strengthening of the exoskeleton after molting.
Teneral after moulting when the insect's body is soft and vulnerable, often white.
Insect Colors are caused by pigments. bright colors, however are caused by structural components that cause the scattering of light
Sclerites Hardened or sclerotized areas or plates of exoskeleton
Sutures lines or grooves that hold together sclerites
Conjunctivae The soft, pliable portions of the exoskeleton between segments of the body and of the appendages
Spines Large, immovable outgrowths of the exoskeleton are called
Setae hairs which arise trichogen cell and a tormogen cell
Sensilla sensory structure connected to nerves. These are sensitive to movement, odor, taste and vibrations.
Labrum like an upper lip. attached to the head capsule
Mandibles provide cutting instruments and grinding surfaces in the insect mouth
Maxillae have a pair of "spoons" (the galeae), a pair of "forks" (the laciniae).
Labium the lower lip of the insect mouth
Hypopharynx the insect's "tongue".
Suctorial Mouthparts modified for consuming liquid food
Insect mouthparts are the 6 or 7 appendages that became fused during evolution to form the head. Mouthparts are homologous to legs and feed, so essentially insects eat with their feet.
Hexapoda 6-legged arthropods. The tagmata are the head, thorax, and abdomen. 2 main groups: Entognatha and Insecta
Subclass Entognatha small apterous arthropod with mouthparts retracted into a pouch-like head. 3 main groups: collembola, diplura, and protura.
apterous means wingless
Collembola spring tails, have appendages on the 1st, 3rd, and 4th abdominal segment. have the ability to spring themselves through the air to avoid predators.
Diplura small, eyeless entognathans with beaded antennae. Some have caudal cerci modified into pincers
Protura 500 species of minute Entognatha, do not have compound eyes or antennae.
Coneheads small but not the smallest insect. do not have compound eyes or antennae. 1st pair of legs have sensory hairs and the 1st of three abdominal segments have vestigial legs called styli. Obtain oxygen by cuticular diffusion
Why are insects so small? they need to be small in order to support their exoskeleton. If they grow too large the weight would become to heavy
Insect Respiratory System insects breathe without lungs. Insect "blood", hemolymph, does not transport oxygen, as does the blood of vertebrate animals .The tracheal respiratory system is a bit like the heating and airconditioning systems in buildings.
Spricles are like vents in the respiratory system. they are located laterally around the thorax and abdomen. usually 1 pair of spiracles per segment. Air flow is regulated by muscles that operate flap-like valves that open or close each spiracle.
Spiracular Setae filter out dust and other foreign material.
Tracheal Trunks lined by a thin cuticular intima that is continuous with the cuticle of the exoskeleton
taenidia a thin wire that runs spirally through the intima. they give the tracheal tubes the ability to stretch and flex
Tracheoles minute endings of the tracheal branches
Air sacs enlargements of the tracheal tubes. they expand to meet the demands of the muscles, especially for flying insects
Insecta hexapodous arthropods with ectognathus mouthparts. Divided into Thysanura and Pterygota
Thysanura The silverfish and firebrats and their relatives. These are apterous insects with chewing mouthparts and ametabolous development. All wingless
Silverfish small insects found under the loose bark of dead trees, bird nests, and buildings. Have long slender filaform antennae. The tail end had 3 long tails called caudal cerci. wingless. have large flat silvery scales, and may moult up to 41 times
Caudal Cerci They are the paired appendages of the eleventh abdominal segment.
Ametabolous Development an insect that moults through various instars to develop into its adult stage rather than going through a pupal or metamorphosis phase
What do Silverfish eat? Silverfish eat cereals, paper on which there is glue or paste, sizing in paper and book bindings, starch in fabrics, and the cast skins and dead and injured individuals of their own species.
Insect eyes don't have pupils. can have compound eyes or ocelli
Compound Eyes the major image forming visual receptors of insects. They are comprised of individual structural units called ommatidia. Excellent at detecting motion
Ommatidia individual structural units of compound eyes. The number of ommatidia varies from species to species
Facet each individual lens on a an ommatidium
Ocelli simple eyes. sensitive to low light intensities and to subtle changes in light. also sensitive changes in daylight, as in the seasons or change from day to night. they come in groups of 3 always
Insect Antennae pair appendage which detect odors, humidity, and sounds by sensilla on the antennae.
Antennomeres sgements of antennae
Scape the first segment of an antennae
pedicel 2nd segment of an antennae
flagellum the long part of the antennae and is divided into flagellomeres.
Embryonic Development Tissue differentiation and development of the structure of the body and appendages occurs during embryonic development inside the egg
Post Embryonic Development Insects continue grow and change after embryonic development, that is, after hatching from the egg. Characterized by development through moulting
Paurometabolous Development incomplete metamorphosis. These insects undergo development and pass through the immature stages, and the wings develop externally
Hemimetabolous Development have aquatic niads (immature stages). They all breathe underwater with tracheal gills. Wings develop externally
Holometabolous Development develop internally while they are larvae, but must go through the pupal stage in order to develop into an adult. Wings are not functional until the adult stage. This is called complete metamorphasis.
Imago adult phase of an insect that undergoes holometabolous development (metamorphosis)
Moulting The process that begins with apolysis and ends with ecdysis is called moulting.
Apolysis formation of a sub-cuticular space, skin becomes loose before moulting
Ecdysis begins as the old exoskeleton splits at the top of the head and thorax. The insect struggles free of the old cuticle, leaving behind the exuviae.
Exuviae the old exoskeleton left behind after an insect moults.
Pterygota insects with wings. 2 main groups: Paleoptera and Neoptera
Wings utgrowths of the thorax. have wing veins that are continuous with the hemocoel. The veins are present in consistent patterns that differ in the different insect taxa.
Paleoptera insects without a wing folding mechanism so they are always extended. these types of wings are considered primitive
Neoptera winged insects with a wing folding mechanism.
Order Ephemeroptera About 2,500 species of mayflies. have paleopterous wings and hemimetabolous development.The adults have vestigial mouthparts, but the naiads have chewing mouthparts
Burrowing Mayfly have aquatic niads and tracheal gills. Construct a u-shaped burrow in river bottom sediment where they feed on detritus. Only known insects to moult after being fully developed. Emerge in mass quantities, do not eat and then die.
Aquatic Insects important to the health of aquatic environments. Good indicators of water quality. Mayflies are indicators of good water quality
Order Odonata The dragonflies and the damselflies. cannot fold their wings, have hemimetabolous development, and chewing mouthparts
Widow Skimmer type for dragonfly. Males have white on wings. Strong agile predators, capture mosquitoes and other insects in flight in a basket. Need acute eyesight to spot prey. Large compound eyes. Males do not stay near female after mating, thus the name widow.
Muscle Attachment insects have a lot more muscles than humans. The muscles of insects are attached to the extensive surfaces of the exoskeleton. The largest insect muscles are the flight muscles in the thorax of pterygote insects.
Direct Flight Muscles the muscles are attached directly to the wings of the insect, like in dragonflies.
Indirect Flight Muscles attached to the inner surfaces of the thorax of insects like cicadas. These muscles cause the wings to move by deforming the thorax. Important muscles are also attached to a group of small slcerites at the base of the wing. Found in Neoptera
Tentorium inside the insect head, an internal truss that reinforces the head capsule and cradles the brain. Also provides a rigid structure for the mouthparts and mandibles
Order Plecoptera The members of the order Plecoptera are called stoneflies. They have hemimetabolous development with aquatic naiads.
Salmonfly found in and around medium to large rivers. Have aquatic niads and hemimetabolous development. Important source of food for salmon and trout. Bioindicator of good water quality. Adult salmonflies make sounds by tapping their abdomen against a substrate.
Order Orthoptera grasshoppers, crickets, katydids and their relatives. have chewing mouthparts and paurometabolous development. front wings modified into tegmina
Tegmina front wings that are completely leathery or parchment-like in texture. Much heavier in order to protect the membranous hind wings. Gives insect the ability to crawl into tight spaces and hide
Southeastern Field Cricket have wings but rarely fly. also have saltatorial hind legs with a greatly enlarged femur. Paurometabolous development. The type specimen was collected in Auburn, AL
Stridulation sound production by rubbing one part of the exoskeleton against another. Male crickets make their species-specific songs by rubbing their front wings together. Each front wing has a file and scraper that causes the wings to vibrate and emit a sound
Inset Hearing Organs Hearing in crickets involves the tympanum on the front tibia and the acoustic spiracles and tracheae on the prothorax and prothoracic leg. The lubber grasshopper and other grasshoppers has the tympanum on the first abdominal segment.
Snowy Tree Cricket sometimes called the temperature cricket, because if you add 40 to the number of chirps per 15 seconds, it will equal the ambient temperature in degrees F
Mole Crickets construct special acoustic burrows with horn shaped openings that project sound upward.
Insect Digestive System insects process food through the alimentary canal. the tube extends through the body from mouth to anus.
Pre-Oral Cavity food in the pre-oral cavity is mixed with saliva from the salivary glands. Then it enters the mouth, the front opening of the allimentary canal.
Foregut Food in the foregut goes down the esophagus into the crop. From there the food passes into the proventriculus.
Proventriculus equiped with heavily sclerotized spines or plates.This 'gastric mill' grinds and pulverizes the food material before it passes into the midgut.
Midgut Digestion involves mixing the food with enzymes and acids in the midgut. Food material is absorbed into the epithelial lining of the midgut.
gastrica caeca finger-like projections within the midgut. These provide extra surface area for secretion of enzymes or absorption of water
Hindgut The posterior portion of the allimentary canal. Undigested material is formed into feces in the hindgut.The feces also include waste products prepared for elimination by the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules.
Excretory System functions in water reabsorption, maintenance of ion balance and elimination of the nitrogenous breakdown products of protein metabolism. Insects do not have kidneys.
Malphagian Tubules Long hollow tubules that remove nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph. The toxic NH4+ is first converted to urea which is then converted to uric acid which accumulates in the tubules until it is emptied into the hindgut.
Uric Acid principal nitrogenous waste product of terrestrial insects. Relatively insoluble and needs very little water for elimination.
Rectal pads reabsorb water in the hindgut which is returned to the hemolymph
Frass insect feces
Phytophagus Insects refers to insects that eat green plants
Polyphagus Insects Insects that eat a wide range of different host plants. They will eat almost any green plant, though they prefer some over others. Some plants have defenses to deter polyphagus insects
Oligophagus Insects insects that feed on a dew plant species that are typically closely related.
Monophagus Insects feed on only 1 plant species.
Desert Locust polyphagus, will eat almost any green plant. considered one of the world's most destructive insects. Massive migrations, which is an adaptation to living in an area with very little rainfall. Weather can predict emergences of Locusts.
Solitary vs. Migratory locust locusts are green at first (solitary) but as their population grows migratory behavior is triggered. They become yellow in color and form massive migratory swarms.
Order Phasmida walkingsticks and the leaf insects. have chewing mouthparts, paurometablous development, and roughly 3,000 species
Two-Striped Walking Stick phytophagus, feed on leaves of trees and shrubs. Like all other insects,have a tripedal gait which allows for a constant stable stance. The legs form alternate triangles touching the ground. larvae able to regenerate an appendage
Defensive Allomone It is produced in large thoracic glands and released from two pores on the prothorax of the twostriped walkingstick. It can be sprayed up to 15.7 inches with accuracy. In one human case, vision was impaired for about five days.
Order Dermaptera earwigs. have chewing mouthparts and paurmetabolous development. have short, hardened front wings are modified to form elytra.
Elytra short hardened from wings. leave most of the abdominal terga exposed. These shortened wings allow a great deal of flexibility for the abodomen. delicate hindwings are folded behind the elytra
Striped Earwig predacious. have forceps-like caudal cerci. These function in courtship, in aggression and in prey capture. Females use their cerci in defense of their young. Because of this parental investment in offspring survival, the earwigs qualify as presocial.
Created by: asculpepper