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Environmental Emerg

Chapter 18

QuestionAnswer
Air embolism Air bubbles in the blood vessels
Ambient Temperature The temperature of the surrounding environment
Antivenin A serum that counteracts the effect of venom from an animal or insect.
Bends common name for decompression sickness.
Bradycardia Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
Breath-holding syncope Loss of consciousness caused by a decreased breathing stimulus.
Conduction The loss of heat by direct contact (eg, when a body part comes into contact with a colder object)
Convection The loss of body heat caused by air movement (eg, breeze blowing across the body)
Core temperature The temperature of the central part of the body (eg, the heart, lungs, and vital organs).
Decompression sickness A painful condition seen in divers who ascent too quickly, in which gas, especially nitrogen, forms bubbles in blood vessels and other tissues; also called "the bends"
Diving reflex Slowing of the heart rate caused by submersion in cold water.
Drowning Death from suffocation by submersion in water
Electrolytes Certain salts and other chemicals that are dissolved in body fluids and cells
Evaporation conversion of water or another fluid from a liquid to a gas.
Frostbite Damage to tissues as the result of exposure to cold; frozen body parts.
Heat cramps Painful muscle spasms usually associated with vigorous activity in a hit environment.
Heat exhaustion A form of heat injury in which the body loses significant amounts of fluid and electrolytes because of heavy sweating; also called heat prostration or heat collapse.
Heatstroke A life-threatening condition of severe hyperthermia caused by exposure to excessive natural or artificial heat, marked by warm, dry skin; severely altered mental status; and often irreversible coma.
Hyperbaric chamber A chamber, usually a small room, pressurized to more than atmospheric pressure.
Hyperthermia A condition in which core temperature rises to 101 degrees farenheit or more.
Hypothermia A condition in which core temperature falls below 95 degrees farenheit.
Laryngospasms A severe constriction of the larynx and vocal cords.
Near drowning Survival, at least temporarily, after suffocation in water.
Radiation The transfer of heat to colder objects in the environment by radiant energy, for example heat gain from a fire
Respiration The loss of body heat as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cooler air is inhaled.
Reverse triage A triage process in which efforts are focused on those who ar ein respiratory and cardiac arrest, and different from conventional triage where such patients would be classified as deceased. used in triaging multiple victims of a lightning strike.
Scuba A system that delivers air to the moth and lungs at various atmospheric pressures, increasing with the depth of the dive; stands for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.
Turgor The ability of the skin to resist deformation; tested by gently pinching skin on the forehead or back of the hand.
Created by: azoch