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Ap Biology Ch. 4

Organic Chemistry

organic chemistry The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
hydrocarbon An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen
isomer One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers
structural isomer One of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangments of their aoms
geometric isomer One of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms
enantiomer One of two molecules that are mirror images of each other
functional group A specific configration of atoms commonly attched to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells
hydoxyl group A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols
carbonyl group A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydoxyl group
carboxyl group A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atm double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
amino group A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in a solution, accpeting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+
sulfhydryl group A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH)
phosphate group A functional group important in energy transfer
Created by: gnomealot
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