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Diabetic Emergencies

Chapter 15

Acidosis A pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of acids in the body.
Diabetes Mellitus A metabolic disorder in which the ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) is impaired, usually because of a lack of insulin.
Diabetic coma Unconsciousness caused by dehydration, very high blood glucose levels, and acidosis in diabetes.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) A form of acidosis in uncontrolled diabetes in which certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available.
Glucose One of the basic sugars; it is the primary fuel, along with oxygen, for cellular metabolism.
Hormone A chemical substance that regulates the activity of body organs and tissues; produced by a gland.
Hyperglycemia Abnormally high glucose level in the blood.
Hypoglycemia Abnormally low glucose level in the blood.
Insulin A hormone produced by the islets of langerhans (an exocrine gland on the pancreas) that enables glucose in the blood to enter the cells of the body; used in synthetic form to treat and control diabetes mellitus.
Insulin Shock Unconsciousness or altered mental status in a patient with diabetes caused by significant hypoglycemia; usually the result of excessive exercises and activity or failure to eat after a routine dose of insulin.
Kussmaul respirations Deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available.
Polydispia Excessive thirst persisting for long periods of time despite reasonable fluid intake; often the result of excessive urination.
Polyphagia Excessive eating; in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense of hunger.
Polyuria The passage of an unusually large volume of urine in a given period; in diabetes, this can result from wasting of glucose in the urine.
Type I Diabetes The type of diabetic disease that usually starts in childhood and requires insulin for proper treatment and control.
Type II Diabetes The type of diabetic disease that usually starts later in life and often can be controlled through diet and oral medications.
Created by: azoch