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Ancient Greece-DGeli

Ancient Greece- SS- Mr. B- T1

City State A Greek community with its traditions, government and laws
Hellenism Describes Greek culture spread by Alexander the Great
Tragedy a type of serious play that often ends in disaster
Epic A long poem that tells a story
Tyranny A government that takes power with the support of the working class, sometimes by force
Aristocracy A government ruled by a few wealthy powerful families
Agora A public market and meeting place
Socrates Famous philosopher of Ancient Greece
Diffusion The way language, customs and ideas are spread
Acropolis A high, rocky hill on which early people built cities
Odyssey Term for a long, difficult journey
Troy City located across the Hellespont in Asia Minor
Xerxes King of Persian Empire who invaded Greece
Sparta City known for its warriors and frugal lifestyle
Helots Spartan slaves
Priam King of Troy
Ionic, Corintian and Doric all examples of Greek columns
Alexander the Great lived during the Classical Period: 500-336BC
Aristotle The Greek philosopher who taught Alexander as a boy
Cyclops The one-eyed monster that Odysseus faces
Phalanx The military strategythat Alexander used to defeat larger armies
Minoan the civilization that archaeologists found the ruins of on Crete that had been destroyed by earthquakes and tsunamis
Poseidon the god of the sea
Marathon Great Athenian victory over the Persians and now an Olympic event is named this.
Aphrodite the goddess of love and beauty
Alexander Homeric name for Paris
Mediteranean Sea The largest sea that seperates Europe and Africa
Ionian Sea The part of the Medierranean Sea between Southeast Italy, East Sicily, and Greece
Aegean Sea An arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey
Hercules One of the greatest heroes of classical mythology, supposed to have been the strongest man on earth, was renowned for completing twelve seemingly impossible tasks and was the killing of the nine-headed Hydra. Zues was his father.
Archimedes (born 290 B.C.) Greek inventor and mathematician; invented formulas for the surface ara and volume of a sphere
Leonides was a king of Sparta, the seventeenth of the Agiad line. He was one of the sons of King Anaxandridas II of Sparta. Led the battle fo Thermopylae with 300 Spartan men against Xerxes
Pericles (495 B.C. – 429 B.C.) Athenian leader; played a major role in the development of democracy and the Athenian empire; ordered the Creation of the Acropolis featuring the Parthanon.
Adriatic Sea An arm of the Mediteranean between Italy and the Balkan Peninsula
Euclid (300 B.C.) Greco-Roman mathematician; known for the elements; book on geometry. He found the branch of math called geometry. Also known as the “Father of Geometry”.
Blockade the cutting off of an area by enemy forces that closes it to travel and trade
Trojans a native or inhabitant of Troy
Crete A Greek island in the Mediterranean, Southeast of mainland Greece. Capital: Canean
Barbarian A person who belongs to a group that another group considers to be savage or uncivilized.
Mountain Olympus Located in Peria, nothern Greece, the home of the gods in Greek mythology; modern-day Turkey
Salamis Aislan, East Greece, in the Saronic Gulf, West of Athens. It early belonged to Aegina but was later under Athnian control, exept for a brief period after it was occupied 9c.6000B.C.) by Megara
Epic A long poem that tells a story
Tyrant A ruler who takes power with the support of the middle and working classes; not necessarily cruel and violent
Darius (born 558 B.C.) King of Persia 521 B.C. – 486 B.C.
Thermopylae A narrow pass between the mountains and the sea linking Locris and Thessaly; scene of a famous battle (480 B.C.) I which a greatly outnumbered Greek army under Leonidas fought to the death to delay the Persians during their attemp to conquier Greece.
Assasinate To murder for political reasons
Aristocrat A member of a rich and powerful family
Imortal Someone or something that lives forever
Philosopher Someone who uses reason to understand the world; in Greece, the ealiest philosophers used to reason to explain natural events.
Philosophy System of beliefs and values
Assimilation The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct
Peloponnesian war a long war between the greek city-states of athens and sparta in the fifth century b.c.,sparta won the war
Column a decorative pilar,most often composed of stone and typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft with a capital and usually a base.
Salamis an island off the southeast coast of greece,west of athens, in the gulf of aegina:greeks defeated persians in a naval battle 480 b.c.20,000;39sq.mi (101
Illiad a greek epic;credited to poet homer,telling about quarrels among greek leaders in the last year of trojain war.
Hoplite a heavily armed footsoldier of ancient greece.
Hippocrates greek physician who laid the foundations of scientific medicine by freeing medical study from the constraints of philosophical speculation and supersition. Also known as “the father of madicine”
Hermes the anceint greek herald and messenger of the gods and the god of roads,commerce,invetion,cunningand theft.
Artemis An ancient Greek goddess, the daughter of Leto and the sister of Apollo, characterized as a virgin huntress and associated with the moon
Athena The virgin deity of the ancient Greeks worshiped as the goddess of wisdom, fertility, the useful arts, and prodent warfaire. At her vbirth she sprang forth fully armed form the head of her father, Zeus.
Paris A Trogan prince, son of Priam and Hecuba and brother of the Cassandra, who awarded the appleof discord to Aphordite and was by her help enable to abduct Helen
Hector The eldest son of Priam and husband of Andromache: the greatest Trojan hero in the Trojan War, killed Achilles
Menelaus A king of Sparta, the husband of Helen and brother of Agamemnon, to whom he appealed for and army against Troy in order to recover Helen from her abductor, Paris
Helen The beautiful daughter of Zeus and Leda, and the wife of enelaus whose abduction by Paris was the cause of the Trojan War
Palamedes The son of Nauplius (king of Euboea) and Clymene and a hero of the Trojan War. He was a prominent figure in post-Homeric legends about the siege of Troy.
Assimilation The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups, not involving biological amalgamation
God a being considered to be the creatro or ruler of the universe or parts of the universe; the object of worship in some cultures or societies
Demeter the Greek and Roman goddess of grain, agriculture, and the harvest. The story of Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, explains the cycle of the seasons
Hera The ancient Greek queen of heaven, a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and the wife and sister of Zeus. Goddess of marriage and family.
Athens The capital of Greece.
Monarchy a form of government in which supreme authority is vested in a single person and usually hereditary figure, such as a king and whose powers can vary from those of an absolute depot to those of a figurehead.
Achillis The greatest Greek warrior in the Trojan War and hero of Homer’s Illiad. He killed Hector and was killed when Paris wounded him in the heel, his one vulnerable spot, with and arrow; the son of Peleus and the sea goddess Thetis
Xenophobia An unresonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange
Oracle at Delphi was the most important shrine in all of Greece, and in theory all Greeks respected its independence. Built around a sacred spring, Delphi was considered to be the omphalos – the center (literally navel) of the world
Parthanon The chief temple of the Greek goddess Athena on the hill of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece
Democracy A form of government in which citizens govern themselves
Drama a literary work , such as a play, that tells a story and is written to be performed by actors
Amphitheatre A building, usually circular or oval, in which tiers of seats rise from a central open arena, as in thoseo f ancient Rome
Proximity A nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, or relation
Pythagoras The Greek mathematician who founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton in Southern Italy. Pythagorus is most famous for Pythagorean Theorem a
Odysseus King of Ithaca; son of Laertes; one of the heroes of lliad and protagonist of the Odyssey; shrewdest of the Greek leaders in the Trojan War.
Orchestra The round space at the bottom of a Greek theater where the action took place; the main floor of a theater; a group of musicians who play together on different instruments.
Trojan War In Greek epis poems and myths, ten year war between Greece and the city of Troy in Asia Minor.
Plague A widespread of disease.
Phillip of Macedonia (382 B.C. – 336 B.C.) King of Macedonia; seized power in 359 B.C.; conquered the Greek city-states; father of Alexander the Great.
Solon (630 B.C. – 560 B.C.) Athenian statesman; made Athens more democratic.
Peloponnesus A peninsula forming the South part of Greece: site of the early Mycenaean civilization and the powerful city-states of Argos, Sparta, etc. 986, 912; 8356 sq. miles (21,640 sq. km).
Zeus The supreme deity if the ancient Greeks, a son of Cronus and Rhea, brother of Demeter, Hades, Hera, Hestia, and Poseidon, and father of a number of gods, demigods, and mortals; the god of the heavens, identified by the Romans with Jupiter.
Trireme An Oar-powered warship. Light, fast, and it was the principal naval vessel with which Persia, Phoenicia, and the Greek city-states vied for mastery of the Mediterranean from the Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) through the end of Peloponnesian War (404 B.C.)
Plato An ancient Greek philosopher, often considered the most important figure in Western philosophy. Plato was a student of Socrates and later became the teacher of Aristotle. He is best known for his theory that ideal /ideas.
Ionian A member of one of the four main divisions of the prehistoric Greeks who invaded the Greek mainland and, after the Dorian invasions, emigrated to the Aegean islands and the coast of Asia Minor.
Persia A vast ancient empire of Southwest Asia; the historical name for the region in and around present-day Iran.
Penisula An area of land nearly surrounded by water.
Homer (800 B.C.) Greek poet; credited with composing the epics the lliad and the Odyssey.
Herodotus (484 B.C. – 420 B.C.) Greek author who traveled throughout the known world; wrote about the wars between Greece and Persia in the History, the first major of Historical ancient times.
Themistocles (527 B.C. – 460 B.C.) Athenian statesman, who was responsible for the Athenian victory against the Persians at Salamis (480 B.C.). He was ostracized in 470 B.C.
Sophocles (496 B.C. – 406 B.C.) Greek dramatist; author of seven extant tragedies: Ajax, Antigone, Oedipus Rex, Trichinae, Electra, Philoctetes, and Oedipus at Colonus.
Nike The ancient Greek goddess of Victory.
Dionyseus (405 B.C. – 367 B.C.) Greek soldier: tyrant of Syracuse.
Mycenaen A native of inhabitant of ancient Mycenae.
Agoraphobia An abnormal fear of being in crowds, public places, or open areas, sometimes accompanied by anxiety attacks.
Tribute A payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one.
Olympics Of or pertaining to the Olympic games; and event passed down from ancient Greek in Honor of Greek god Zeus.
Eratosthenes (275 B.C. – 195 B.C.) Greek scholar who headed the library at Alexandria; wrote works on many subjects and was a noted astronomer
Hephaestus the Ancient Greek god of fire, metalworking, and the handicrafts, identified by the Romans with Vulcan.
Apollo The god of light, poetry, music, healing, and prophecy: son of Zeus and Leto, and brother to Artemis
Knossos A ruined city on North Central Crete; capital of the ancient Minoan civilization
Agamemnon A king of Mycenae, a son of Atreus and brother of Menelaus. He led the Greeks in the Trojan War and was murdered by Clytemnestra, his wife, upon his return from Troy
Created by: DGelineau1



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