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Neurologic Emerg

Chapter 13

QuestionAnswer
Absence seizure Seizure that may be characterized by a brief lapse of attention in which the patient may stare and does not respond. Also known as petit mal seizure.
Aphasia The inability to understand or produce speech.
Arterial Rupture Rupture of a cerebral artery that may contribute to interruption of cerebral blood flow.
Atherosclerosis Disorder where cholesterol and calcium build up inside walls of blood vessels, forming plaque. Leads to partial/complete blockage of blood flow; plaque can also become a site where blood clots form, break off, and embolize elsewhere in the circulation.
Aura A sensation experienced prior to a seizure; serves as a warning sign that a seizure is about to occur.
Cerebral Embolism Obstruction of a cerebral artery caused by a clot that was formed elsewhere in the body and traveled to the brain.
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) An interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function.
Coma A state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
Coup-contrecoup brain injury A brain injury that occurs when force is applied to the head and energy transmission through brain tissue causes injury on the opposite side of original impact.
Dysrthria the inability to proncounce speech clearly, often due to loss of the nerves or brain cells that control the small muscles in the larynx.
Expressive Aphasia A speech disorder in which a person can understand what is being said but cannot produce the right sounds in order to speak properly.
Febrile seizures Convulsions that result from sudden high fevers, particularly in children.
Generalized seizure Seizure characterized by severe twitching of all the body's muscles that may last several minutes or more; also known as a grand mal seizure.
Hemiparesis Weakness on one side of the body
Hemorrhagic Stroke One of the two main types of stroke; occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.
Hypoglycemia A condition characterized by low blood glucose levels.
Incontinence Loss of bowel and bladder control due to generalized seizure.
Infarcted cells cells in the brain that die as a result of loss of blood flow to the brain.
Ischemia A lack of oxygen in the cells of the brain that cause them to not function properly.
Ischemic stroke One of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage (e.g., clot) inside a blood vessel.
Postictal state Period following a seizure that lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, characterized by labored respirations and some degree of altered mental status.
Receptive aphasia A speech disorder in which a person has trouble understanding speech but is able to speak clearly.
Seizure Generalized, uncoordinated muscular activity associated with loss of consciousness; a convulsion
Status epilepticus A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes, or last more than 30 minutes.
Stroke A loss of brain function in certain rain cells that do not get enough oxygen during a CVA. Usually caused by obstruction of the blood vessels in the brain that feed oxygen to the brain cells.
Thrombosis Clotting of the cerebral arteries that may result in the interruption of cerebral blood flow and subsequent stroke.
Tonic-clonic A type of seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) A disorder of the brain in which brain cells temporarily stop working because of insufficient oxygen, causing stroke-like symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.
Created by: azoch