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respiratory drugs

pulmonary medicines, nursing pharmacology

bronchodilators beta-adrenergic agonists or sympathomimetics, Xanthine or Methylxanthenes,
action of beta adrenergic agonists stimulates smoothe muscles to cause bronchodilation
beta 2 receptors in lungs
beta 1 receptors in heart
rescue inhalers epinephrine (Primatene mist), terbutaline (Brethine), Albuterol (Provental, Ventolin), Salmeterol (Serevent)
Inhaled drugs rapid onset, short duration
Oral bronchodilators not effective in acute attacks
action of Xanthine or Methylxanthenes smoothe muscle relaxant, inhibits phosphodiesterase
examples of xanthine bronchodilators theophylline (Theodur or theolair), Aminophylline, caffeine
monitor for these with xanthine drugs toxicity, blood levels
n/c for xanthines toxicity, tachycardia, restlessness and insomnia, seizures, anorexia, give with meals
Action of Anticholinergics blocks parasympathetic input, decreases bronchial constriction, not used for acute attacks!
Examples of Anticholinergics Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent), and Combivent (albuterol and atrovent)
Anticholinergics used before surgeries and broncoscopies to prevent vagal stimulation and decrease secretions
n/c of anticholinergics dry secretions, urinary retention, NOT used in clients with glaucoma or urinary obstructions
Anti-inplammatory agents corticosteroids
action of corticosteroids decreases the inflammatory and immune responses
systemic corticosteroids prednisone and methylprednisone
what to avoid with systemic corticosteroids never ever stop abruptly, and taper when switching from systemic to inhaled steroids
s/e of corticosteroids weight gain, electrolyte imbalances(decreased Potassium), hypertension, hyperglycemia from decreased effects of diabetic agents, thin skin, decreased healing, bone loss
inhaled steroids flovent, aerobid, azmacort, pulmicort, vanceril, advair diskus
action of inhaled steroids limited to respiratory system
important teaching for inhaled steroids rinse mouth after use, and wash chamber and mouthpiece!
combo drug inhaled via dry powder advair diskus (corticosteroid and beta2 receptor agonist)
Advair Diskus not for children, not for acute attacks, never EXHALE into diskus
Mast cell stabilizers (antiinflammatory agent) Intal - prevent histamine release Tilade - PREVENTS inflammation from occurring
Monoclonal antibodies (anti-inflammatory agent) Xolair - prevents allergens from triggering asthmatic attack
Antileukotrinine Agents action leukotriene modifiers, mast cell stabilizers, decreases airway edema
Antileukotrinine Agent drugs PO- Accolate and Singulair
Antileukotrinine Agent n/c not rescue drugs, instruct client to continue even when no symptoms, monitor LFT
S/e of antileukotrinines n/v, (take one to two hours after meals), headaches, liver dysfunctions (LFT)
Antitussives cough suppressants
Narcotic Antitussives codeine, hydrocodone
non-narcotic antitussives benzonatate (Tessalon), dextramethorphan (Benylin)
Do not use antitussives with.... productive cough
n/c for antitussives sedation, dry mouth, constipation, check for adequate hydration
Mucolytics and Expectorants action thins out and loosens secretions, making them easier to expectorate
Mucolytics and Expectorant drugs acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)nebulizer, Guaifenesin(Naldecon)oral.
mucolytics not used with asthma d/t lack of secretions
nursinf diagnosis with impaired respiratory functions *Impaired Gas exchange, *Activity Intolerance, *Imbalanced Nutrition, *Risk for Infection, *Home Maintenance Management
Created by: hong204