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Cardiovascular Emerg

Chapter 12

QuestionAnswer
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) Heart attack; death of heart muscle following obstruction of blood flow to it. Acute in this context means "new" or "happening right now."
Angina Pectoris Transient (short-lived) chest discomfort caused by partial or temporary blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
Anterior The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
Aorta the main artery, which receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood to the tissues of the body.
Aortic Valve The one-way valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. It keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after the left ventricle ejects its blood into the aorta. One of four heart valves.
Arrhythmia An irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.
Atherosclerosis A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, eventually leading to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
Asystole Complete absence of heart electrical activity.
Atrium One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and delivers it to the right ventricle. the left atrium receives blood from pulmonary veins an delivers it to the left ventricle.
Bradycardia Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
Cardiac arrest A state in which the heart fails to generate an effective and detectable blood flow; pulses are not palpable in cardiac arrest, even if muscular and electrical activity continues in the heart.
Cardiogenic shock A state in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissues of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart. It can be a severe complication of a large acute myocardial infarction, as well as other conditions.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) A disorder in which the heart loses part of its ability to effectively pump blood, usually as a result of damage to the heart muscle and usually resulting in a backup of fluid into the lungs.
Coronary artery A blood vessel that carries blood and nutrients to the heart muscle.
Defibrillate To shock a fibrillating (chaotically beating) heart with specialized electrical current in an attempt to restore a normal rhythmic beat.
Dependent Edema Swelling in the part of the body closest to the ground, caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure (CHF).
Dillation Widening of a tubular structure such as coronary artery
Infarction Death of a body tissue, usually caused by interruption of its blood supply.
Inferior The part of the body, or any body part, nearer the feet.
Ischemia A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible because permanent injury has not yet occurred.
Lumen The inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure.
Myocardium Heart muscle
Occlusion Blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as blood vessel.
Perfusion The flow of blood through body tissues and vessels.
Posterior The back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomical position.
Superior The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the head.
Syncope Fainting spell or transient loss of consciousness.
Tachycardia Rapid heart rhythm, more than 100 beats/min.
Ventricle One of two (R and L) lower chambers of the heart. the left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium (upper chamber) and delivers blood to the aorta. The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery.
Ventricular fibrillation Disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest.
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) Rapid heart rhythm in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest.
Created by: azoch