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AP Gov Ch 2 Notvocab

What is a reason why Great Britain wanted to raise taxes in the American Colonies in the decade before the American Revolution? Great Britain needed funds to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and/or King George III wanted to assert royal authority in the colonies
What were 27 of the 32 paragraphs in the Declaration of Independence focused on? Grievances (complaints) against the British monarch
What is a nation's basic law, creating political institutions, assigning powers, and possibly guaranteeing rights to people? A constitution
In reference to the Declaration of Independence, who said, "We must indeed all hang together, or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately." Benjamin Franklin
Whose work was the "dominant political faith of the American colonies in the second quarter of the eighteenth century" as stated by Clinton Rossiter? John Locke
What two limits on government were particularly important to John Locke? 1. Standing laws so people know the laws in advance and 2. the Preservation of Property
Which political thinker is best associated with social contract theory and promotion of the right to revolution against oppression? John Locke
Which political thinker is best associated with social contract theory and an argument against political revolution? Thomas Hobbes
Which political thinker is best associated with Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances? Baron Montesquieu
Which American political thinker is best associated with developing the argument for Federalism? James Madison
Which political leader is credited with writing the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
Which political leader is known as the "Father of the Constitution"? James Madison
Which political leader is known as the "Father of the Country"? George Washington
What was the primary value for the Framers, the writers of the U.S. Constitution? Limited Government
Why is the American Revolution known as a "Conservative" Revolution? The American revolutionaries sought to re-establish the independence and the rights they felt they already had as Englishmen
What was the first operating government for the United States of America? The Second Continental Congress
What was the first constitution of the United States of America? The Articles of Confederation
What was the primary problem that prevented the Articles of Confederation from working? The Central Government lacked the powers to enforce its rulings or conduct government
What was the "spark" that led to the Articles of Confederation being replaced by the U.S. Constitution? Shay's Rebellion
Why was the economy so bad during the Articles of Confederation years? The central government could not effectively administer the economy. States coined their own money. States created trade barriers with each other. States began manipulating credit. Small farmers began losing their lands.
Name the meetings that led up to the Constitutional Convention. 1. The Mt. Vernon meeting 2. The Annapolis meeting
What is another name for the Constitutional Convention? The Philadelphia Convention
What did the Framers at the Constitutional Convention agree on? 1. human nature or 2. the causes of political conflict or 3. the objects or goals of government or 4. the nature of a republican government
What did Franklin say were the "two passions" that powerfully influence men? love of power and love of money
Who said, "The most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property"? James Madison
What do the Framers mean when they use the word "faction"? parties and/or interest groups
What did the Framers view as the "principal object of government"? preservation of property
What did the Framers mean by "balanced" government? They meant institutional powers should be set against one another: Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
What was the primary conflict in writing the Constitution? Large States' desire for representation based on population and Small States' desire for equal representation for each state
What Constitutional plan favored large states? Virginia Plan
What Constitutional plan favored small states? New Jersey Plan
What Constitutional plan created a bicameral legislature with two different kinds of representation as a compromise for big and little states? Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise or Connecticut Plan
What are the three slave compromises in the Constitution? 1. Fugitive Slave clause 2. Slave Trade Compromise 3. 3/5 Compromise
What did the Framers decide concerning suffrage (the right to vote)? The left who should vote for each State to decide
Who argued that the Framers were principally motivated to increase their own wealth? Charles Beard (and the evidence does not support him)
What are three economic powers of Congress? levy taxes, pay debts, borrow $, coin/regulate $, regulate foreign & interstate commerce, establish bankruptcy law, punish piracy & counterfeiting, create standard wts. & measures, create a postal system, protect copyrights/patents
What are some Constitutional prohibitions on the States? States cannot pass laws to relieve debt & cannot coin money & cannot require debts be paid in paper money & cannot tax imports or exports & could not free runaway slaves from other states
Why did the Constitution assume the national debt contracted under the Articles of Confederation? To avoid having a bad financial relationship with other countries
What does the Constitution require the Federal Government guarantee the States? A Republican Form of Government
What does the Full Faith and Credit Clause provide for? States must repect civil court judgements and contracts made in other states.
What are some of the personal freedoms given in the Articles of the U.S. Constitution? 1. prohibits suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, and religious qualifications for federal office. 2. Places strict rules for treason. 3. Upholds right to jury trials in criminal cases
What are the three Constitutional ingredients of Madison's plan to prevent tyranny? 1. Place most of the government beyond the direct control of the majority. 2. Separate the powers of different institutions. 3. Construct a system of Checks and Balances.
Give examples of how the Constitution limited direct control by the majority. The President is elected by the Electoral College. - The Supreme Court is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. - The Senate was originally chosen by State Legislatures.
What are two ways the Constitution demonstrates Separation of Powers? There are three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Also, Congress is bicameral: the Senate and House of Representatives.
How can the Judiciary check the Executive and Legislative Branches? By declaring their laws or acts unconstitutional
How can the Executive check the Legislative branch? Veto
How can the Executive check the Judicial Branch? The President nominates judges.
How can the Legislative check the Judicial Branch? The Senate confirms Presidential nominations. Congress can impeach and remove judges. Congress can change the number of Supreme Court Justices (court-packing).
How can the Legislative check the Executive Branch? Congress approves Presidential nominations and controls the budget. Can overcome a veto with a 2/3 supermajority. Can impeach and remove the President.
What Supreme Court decision asserted the power of Judicial Review? Marbury v. Madison
What term did the Framers prefer for our government over the term democracy? Republic
Who favored the adoption of the Constitution? Federalists
Who were opposed to the ratification of the Constitution? Anti-Federalists
What class of men were identified as likely Federalists? the urban class, commercial class, people along the coast
What class of men were identified as likely Anti-Federalists? inland farmers, planters, laborers
Who are some famous Federalists? Madison, Jay, Hamilton, John Adams, Washington
Who are some famous Anti-Federalists? Jefferson, Patrick Henry, George Mason
Why were the Federalist Papers written? To convince New York to ratify the Constitution
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights protected freedom of expression? First
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights protected personal beliefs? First
What Amendments in the Bill of Rights protected privacy? Third and Fourth
What Amendments in the Bill of Rights povides rights as defendants? Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights provides the right to bear arms? Second
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights guarantees just compensation in cases of eminent domain? Fifth
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights assures us that unlisted rights are not necessarily denied? Ninth
What Amendment in the Bill of Rights reserves powers that are not delegated to the national government to the States or the People? Tenth
Why did the Federalists agree to a Bill of Rights? It was a compromise to get more Anti-Federalists to accept the Constitution.
Why did the Federalists believe there was no need for a Bill of Rights? They argued the Federal Government couldn't do anything it wasn't direclty given the power to do and that many States already had Bills of Rights.
What are the two methods for proposing an Amendment? 2/3 approval either in the U.S. Congress or a National Constitutional Convention
What are the two methods for ratifying an Amendment? 3/4 approval either in the State Legislatures or in State Constitutional Conventions
Which proposal method has been used every time? 2/3 approval by the U.S. Congress
Which proposal method has never been used? 2/3 approval by a National Constitutional Convention
Which ratification method has been used every time but once? 3/4 approval by State Legislatures
Which ratification method was used once and why? 3/4 approval by State Constitutional Conventions because legislators didn't want the credit for repealing the 18th Am.
What Article concerns itself with Amendments? Article V
What is Article III about? The Judiciary
What is Article I about? Congress
What is Article II about? The Executive
What is Article VII about? Ratification
Which Article is the Supremacy Clause located in? Article VI
Which Article is the Full Faith and Credit Clause and the Privileges and Immunities Clause located in? Article IV
What are some examples of Informal Amendments? Congressional intepretation. The Executive “Necessary & Expedient Clause” & Executive Agreements. Marbury v. Madison. The Two-Party Nomination & Election process. Customs like the Cabinet &, in the past, 2 presidential terms & presidential succession
How many of the 17 Constitutional Amendments after the Bill of Rights have to do with democratization? 5 Amendments
Which Amendment prohibited racial discrimination of voters? Fifteenth
Which Amendment provided women suffrage? Nineteenth
Which Amendment gave D.C. residents representation in the Electoral College? Twenty-third
Which Amendment prohibited poll taxes as a bar on voting? Twenty-fourth
Which Amendment lowered the voting age to 18? Twenty-sixth
Created by: Mr McNair



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