Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Fund Nurs 4

Fundamentals of Nursing Test 4

QuestionAnswer
Nutrition The study of nutrients and how they are handled by the body
What esle relates to nutrition? 3 examples The impact of human behavior and environment. Physiology, psychology, socioeconomics
Nutrients Biochemical substances used by the body
Macronutrients Essential nutrients which supply energy and build tissue
Essential nutrients not synthesized in the body or they are made in insufficient amounts
4 types of macronutrients Carbohydrates, fats, protein, water
Micronutrients Required in smaller amounts to regulate and controll body processes
2 types of micronutrients Vitamins and minerals
2 general classes of nutrients Energy nutrients and regulatory nutrients
3 types of energy nutrients Carbohydrates, fats, proteins
3 types of regulatory nutrients Vitamins, minerals, water
Energy is measures in? AKA Kilocalories AKA calories
Weight gain, weight loss, and stable weight Calorie intake > energy expended = weight gain Calorie intake < energy expended = weight loss Calorie intake = energy expended = stable weight
Basal metabolism Energy needed to carry on involuntary activities at rest
muscle mass and basal metabolism The larger the bodies muscle mass the higher the basal metabolism
Energy is measures in? AKA Kilocalories AKA calories
Weight gain, weight loss, and stable weight Calorie intake > energy expended = weight gain Calorie intake < energy expended = weight loss Calorie intake = energy expended = stable weight
Basal metabolism Energy needed to carry on involuntary activities at rest
muscle mass and basal metabolism The larger the bodies muscle mass the higher the basal metabolism
basal metabolism and energy requirements the basal metabolism is about half the daily energy requirements
Body Weight Standard Rule of thumb guideline for Ideal Body Weight IBW based on height and gender
IBW formula for women 100 lbs for height of 5 feet + 5 lbs for every inch over 5 feet
IBW formula for men 106 lbs for height of 5 feet + 6 lbs for every inch over 5 feet
Body Mass Index formula Weight in pounds/ height in inches squared time 703 = BMI
Which perameter for weight is considered to be the most precise? BMI
What is considered overweight in BMI? Obese? 25 = overweight 30 = obese
Method of calculating calorie requirement? 1 calculate BMR Multiply your weight by 10 for women and 11 for men 2 Multiply your BMR by your activity level 1.2 sedentary 1.3 light activity 1.4 moderate activity 1.5 heavy activity
Carbohydrates- 2 types, elements, converted to?, should provide what % of calories? 1) Sugars and starches 2) Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 3) converted to glucose in the liver 4) should provide 50-60 % of calories
Protein- building blocks, elements, use for 1) amino acids are building blocks 2) composed of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen 3) Required for all body structures and healing
Complete proteins contain sufficient amounts and proportions of all the essential amino acids to support growth
2 sources of complete proteins Animal proteins and soy
Incomplete proteins Deficient in one or more amino acids, they must be eaten with another incomplete protein to make a complete protein
Fats- in water, elements, most are, % of calorie intake insoluble in water, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 95% are triglycerides, no more than 30% of calorie intake
Saturated fats- hydrogen, source, cholesterol Have more hydrogen than unsaturated, found in animals, tend to raise serum cholesterol
Unsaturated fats- hydrogen, source, cholesterol Less hydrogen, found in vegtables, tend to lower serum cholesterol
Cholesterol is only found in? Animals
How many essential amino acids are there? 9
What are essential amino acids? Amino acids that the body needs and can't produce
How much protein is required? For average man? for average women? 0.8 g /kg per day. 56 g for a woman. 63 g for a man
How does the protein need change under stress? It increases
What is a transfat? Occurs when manufacturers partially hydregenate liquid oils so that they become more solid. Raises serum cholesterol. Very bad for you
BMR per hour for men and women 1 cal/kg body weight for men 0.9 cal/kg body weight for women
the body converts carbohydrates to ? Glucose
What organ stores glucose and regulates its entry into the blood? The liver
RDA recommended daily allowance
Ketosis An abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies associated with a low intake of carbohydrates
The RDA recommends Carbohydrates provide what percent of the bodies calories? 45-65%
Number of amino acids 22
What element does amino acids contain that carbohydrates do not? nitrogen
Protein is broken down into amino acids how? By pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine
Amino acids in the liver recombined into new proteins and released into the bloodstream
Catabolism Breaking down tissue
Anabolism Building body tissue
What measures the difference between catabolism and anabolism? nitrogen balance. Positive equals growth, Negavtive equals loss of tissue
What remains after protein has been metabolized? Nitrogen
Location of fat digestion Small intestine
How much saturated fat and cholesterol should a person take in in a day? Less than 10% of calories in saturated fat. less than 300mg of cholesterol
Vitamens Oraganic componds needed by the body in small amounts
Function of vitamens in the body They are needed to facilitate thousand of chemical activities in the body including the metabolism of energy nutrients
Classification of vitamens 2 Fat soluble and water soluble
Water soluble - 2 examples, how stored and result C and B complex. Not stored in the body. A deficiency may develope quickly if they are not ingested daily
Fat soluble vitamens- 4 examples, how stored, 1 potential problem A,D,E,K Stored in the body. Excessive intake of A and D is toxic
Minerals Inorganic elements needed by the body
Where in the body are minerals found? body fluids and tissues
What are macro minerals? Minerals which are needed in quantities of more than 100 mg a day.
Three examples of macro minerals Calcium, phoshorus, magnisium
Micro minerals Need less than 100 mg per day
4 examples of micro minerals Iorn, zinc, manganese, iodine
Water is what percent of an adults body weight 50- 60%
How do infants and older adults compare to adults in percent body water? Infants have more, older adults have less
what percent of body water belongs to each of the two major groups? 2/3 intracellular 1/3 intracellular
Relationship between intercellular fluid and body mass ICF increases with body mass
RDA d. established for all? Recommended Dietary Allowance- The average amounts considered to be adequate : Has not be established for all nutrients
Five illnesses which may be less likely to occur with the proper diet? Diebetes, some cancers, heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure
How does the RDA differ from a requirement? A requirement is the minimum amount needed to prevent a deficiency. the RDA has a safety factor built in for individual variance
the RDA is designed for (populations/ individuals) populations
Who developed MyPyramid Food Guide The U.S. department of Agriculture
What was the food pyramid designed to represent? To represent the total diet and provide a foundation for health
Food pyramid and culture Can be culturally sensitive
6 groups in the food pyramid with daily amounts for each Grain- 6 oz, Meat and Beans- 5.5 oz, Milk 3 cups, vegetables 2.5 cups, fruit 2 cups, oils (small amount)
1990 labeling and regulation act regulates 4 Labeling, serving sizes, descriptions, health claims
Gender and nutrition 2 differences 1 men have more muscle mass and need more calories and protein 2 Women may need more iorn
Obesity 2 definitions Body weight 20% above ideal body weight or BMI of 30
Anorexia d. causes A lack of appetite caused by physical disease of psychosocial causes
Amount of overweight and obsese American adults 2/3 rds are overweight, 30% are obese
3 ways alcohol abuse affects nutrition 1) damage to intestinal mucosa may interfer with nutrient absorption 2) May impair nutrient storage 3) Damage to liver
Economic impact of nutrition wealthy and poor Wealthy people eat more meat, poor people eat more grains
Wht percent of American school children are overweight? 15 %
two major types of nursing diagnoses for nutritional problems 1 Imbalanced nutrition as the problem 2 Imbalanced nutrition as the etiology
For the greatest chance of success with a diet tailor dieting instruction to the individuality of the patient
The second best way of feeding a patient (second to oral) Enteral feeding
Enteral feeding Administer nutrients directly into the stomach
Short term enteral feeding example with problem 1) Nasogastric tube (through nose into stomach) patient at risk for aspirating tube into lungs
Long ter enteral feeding example How insterted PEG Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy inserted by surgery
Economic impact of nutrition wealthy and poor Wealthy people eat more meat, poor people eat more grains
Wht percent of American school children are overweight? 15 %
two major types of nursing diagnoses for nutritional problems 1 Imbalanced nutrition as the problem 2 Imbalanced nutrition as the etiology
For the greatest chance of success with a diet tailor dieting instruction to the individuality of the patient
The second best way of feeding a patient (second to oral) Enteral feeding
Enteral feeding Administer nutrients directly into the stomach
Short term enteral feeding example with problem 1) Nasogastric tube (through nose into stomach) patient at risk for aspirating tube into lungs
Long ter enteral feeding example How insterted PEG Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy inserted by surgery
parenteral nutrition Nutrition is administered by an IV, it bypasses the digestive system
The skin of older adults 5 1) Thin 2) Less elasticity 3) decreased sweat gland activity 4) grey hair 5) nails thicken
3 times when antipersperants and deorerants are contrindicated 1) Before a mammogram 2) postop for a mastectomy (removal of the breast) 3) if they cause skin irritation
What % of body weight is water in an infant? 70%
Three groups which have a lower amount of water and more fat? Females, elderly, and the obese
3 types of extracellular fluid with definitions and percentages of body weight Intravascular (in veins)4% body weight interstitial (intercellular fluid) 15 % body weight, transcellular (in pericardial fluid and synovial fluid)1% body weight
Total amount of fluid ingested per day and broken down by three categories 2600 mL total, 1300 mL by fluid, 1000 mL by food, 300 mL by metabolic processes
Total amount of fluid lost per day and broken down by five categories 2600 mL total, 1500 mL urine, 100 mL feces, 300 mL persperation, 300mL evaporation from the skin, 400 mL exhilation from the lungs.
Osmotic pressure depends on The number of particles, not their weight
Filtration movement occurs from where to where Areas of high hydrostatic pressure to areas of low hydrostatic pressure
Water moves between the vascular and interstitial compartments through the semi-permeable capillary membranes depending on (2) Hydrostaic push of filtration and osmotic pull
Electrolytes and osmotic pressure Electrolytes contribute to osmotic pressure of fluid
Hydrostatic pressure, Osmotic pressure, and capillaries Hydrostatic pressure is greatest at the arteriolar end of the capillary (fluid is pushed into the interstitial tissue by filtration) Osmotic pressure is greatest at the venous end of teh capillary where fluid is pulled back into the capillary
Sodium concentrations near cells Where found? What is its tendency? Sodium concentrations are higher in interstitial fluid. It tends to enter the cell by diffusion.
Sodium-potassium pump-functions and mechanism Uses active transport to move sodium out of the cell and move potassium into the cell.
Kidneys- Amount of fluid filtered, amount of urine produced 170 L of fluid filtered, 1.7 L of urine produced
The kidney functions 4 1) ECF volume and osmolality 2) normal electrolyte levels 3) Regulates pH 4) Excretes
The kidney regulates ECF 1) Regulates ECF volume and osmolality (solute concentration) by selective retention and excretion of body fluids
The kidney regulates electrolyte levels The kidney regulates normal electrolyte levels in the ECF by selective retention and excretion
The kidney regulates pH The kidney regulates pH of the ECF by retention of Hydrogen ions
The kidney and excretion The kidney excretes metabolic waste and toxic substances
Heart and urine formation The heart pumps blood through the kidney with enough force to form urine
Lungs and homeostastis The lungs regulate pH
Hyperventilation results in loss of what? How does it affect the pH? Loss of CO2; pH increases and becomes more alkaline
ADH and osmotic pressure ADH maintains osmotic pressure by controlling the retention and excretion of water by the kidneys
Aldosterone and electrolyte levels Inrease aldosterone results in increases of Na+ (and water retention) and loss of k+
Dehydration and heart reate Dehydration = decreased heart rate
Baroreceptors and heart rate Baroreceptors detect changes in pressure in the blood vessels; decreased stimulation (decreased blood volume) results in decreased stimulation of sympathetic nervous system and increase heart rate
Angiotensin II causes 3 Vasoconstriction, increased arterial perfusion pressure (filtration pressure), and increased thirst
ADH and urine concentration ADH controls the retention and excretion of water by the kidneys; it is the most important factor in determining whether urine is concentrated or diluted
Osmoreceptors and ADH When osmotic pressure increases (higher sodium concentrations, lower amount of water) the receptors stimulate the release of ADH
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)actions decreases blood pressure and volume
12 assessments for fluid status 1) history of fluid loss 2) Confusion 3) Generalized weakness 4) Vital signs 5) I and O 6) Daily weights 7) lung sounds 8) oral cavity 9) peripheral vein refilling 10)temperature and color of extremities 11) pitting edema 12) Skin turgor
When assessing peripheral vein refilling,color should... return to normal in 3 to 5 seconds
What to watch for in vital signs? orthostatic hypotention (low blood pressure upon standing)
pounds to Liter conversion 2.2 lb = 1 L
I and O concern If less that 50 ml per hour for 2 hours then do an hourly output check
Weights proceedure Weigh at same time of day with similar clothes at same scale
Assess for skin turgor Pinch skin and wait for return
Assess for pitting edema push in at edema 2mm = 1+, 4mm = 2+, 6mm = 3+, 8mm = 4+
Plasma values for electrolytes are measured 2 milliequivalents per liter mEq/L, or milligrams per deciliter mg/dL
Conversion of mEq/L to mg/dL mEq/L time 1.2 = mg/dL
milliequivalent is a unit of chemical activity not weight
Electrolytes impact electrical impulses in nerves and muscles
Where are electrolyte levels usually measured? In blood plasma
Normal electrolyte values and variance What is considered normal for an electrolyte value will differ slightly from one lab to another
Sodium- usual location, diffusion, active transport Sodium is usually found in larger quantities in the ECF (interstitial and vascular fluids). It diffuses into the intracellular fluid and is pumped out by the sodium potassium pump through active transport
Sodium transport between the interstitial fluid and vascular fluid Occurs through diffusion
Sodium cations bind with 2 Cloride and bicarbonate
Most calcium in the body is found? 99% is in the bones and teeth. the rest is extracellular
Decreased calcium chain of events dec. calcium- increased Parathyroid hormone- dec. excretion of Ca+, increased bone resorption of Ca+, increased GI absorption of Ca+- Restored normal Ca+ levels
Increase Ca+ chain of events inc. Ca++ - dec. PTH - Inc. urinary Ca++, dec. bone resorption, dec. GI absorption - restored Ca++ levels
Three eletrolytes which are important to monitor together Ca++, K+, Mg++
Chloride can exchange places with what anion? Bicarbonate
Acid base balance in blood Death by acidosis less than 6.8; Acidosis 6.8 to 7.35; Normal blood pH 7.35-7.45; Alkalosis 7.45-7.8; death by alkalosis over 7.8
Bicarbonate to carbonic acid ratio 20 parts bicarbonate = 1 part carbonic acid
Acid-base balance of the body can be determined by 2 arterial blood gases and the anion gap
The anion gap d. Is an approximation of unmeasured anions in plasma
A high anion gap means? Acidosis
Values for; normal anion gap, normal anion gap acidosis, high anion gap acidosis 8-12 mEq/L, 16mEq/L - 30 mEq/L, 30mEq/L or more
Clinical manifestations of acidosis 7 headache, confusion, drowsyness, inc. rate and depth of respirations, nausea and vomitting
Body has a slight tendency toward (alkalosis/acidosis) Why? Acidosis. The body is constantly producing carbonic acid (H2CO3) and other metabolic acids
Three mechanisms which for acid produced as byproducts of metabolism (in the order they respond) Buffer system, Respiratory system, and kidneys
Control of serum pH; buffer system Prevent major changes in pH of body fluids by removing or releasing H+
The body's major buffer system; how is it assessed; ratios Sodium Bicarbonate-Carbonic acid system; assessed in arterial blood gases; normal ratio is 20 bicarbonate to 1 carbonic acid. If this ratio is changed then pH will change
Three minor buffer systems Phosphates, proteins, and hemoglobin systems
How does the respiratory system regulate acid-base balance? In acidosis, repiratory rates increase, CO2 is dumped, and acid load is removed, pH goes up. In alkalosis, repiratory rate is slowed, CO2 is retained, blood acid is increased, pH goes down
Kidneys and acid base regulation 2 ways. how effective 1) can produce and absorb bicarbonate ions 2) Can modify H+ excretion rates ; most effective means to control acid-base balance, but the slowest
Bicarbonate is an (acid/base) Base
Buffer systems are a combination of: A weak acid and its alkaline salt
What do the buffer systems react with? Any acids or alkali added to the blood
How is acid-base status assessed? By measuring carbonic acid- bicarbonate rations in the arterial blood gases
What controls bicarbonate-carbonic buffer system? The respiratory system and kidneys
Carbonic acid- chemical formula, pH, formed how? H2CO3, acidic, arises from the combination of CO2 and H2O
Bicarbonate- chemical formula, present with, pH HCO3-, basic, present with sodium (sodium bicarbonate)
Formation of Carbonic acid 3 steps 1) cell metabolism produces CO2 which diffused in to interstial tissue and blood 2) Reacts with H2O 3) Forms H2CO3
How do the lungs process H2CO3? They break it down to H2O + CO2, and exhale CO2
How do the kidneys process H2CO3? They break it down to HCO3- and H+. Bicarbonate is returned to the blood. H+ is excreated in the urine
HCO3- H2CO3 system and compensation In order for pH to remain the same, each part of the sysem must remain at the same ratio 20:1
Increases in CO2 result in what changes in the respiratory system? An increase in respiratory rate to remove the acid (when combined with H20) from the system
Alkalotic changes in the body result in what changes in the respiratory system? Decrease in respiratory rate to allow CO2 (thus H2CO3) to build up.
How does the renal system respond to increases in acid? The kidneys can exchange Na+ for H+, and combine H+ with other chemicals for excretion
The kidneys and bicarbonate The kidneys can provide bicarbonate for the buffer pair
What is the pH of the following Body Fluids? Gastric Juices, Urine, Arterial blood, Venous blood, CSF, Pancreatic fluid GAstric juices 1.0 to 3.0; Urine 5.0 to 6.0; arterial blood 7.38-7.42; venous blood 7.37; CSF 7.32; Pancreatic fluid 7.8-8.0
Created by: twininger1