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Pediatric Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of a premature infant? < 38 week gestation
What are the energy requirements for a premature infant? 110-130 kcal/day
What is the predicted growth in weight for premature infants? 10-15g/kg/day
How do you measure adequacy of nutritional regimens for a growing term infant? weight and length
What is the average weight of a healthy term newborn? 3.5 kg
By what age is the birth wait of a term infant regained by? 2 weeks of age
What are the energy requirements of a term infant at 0-3 months? 100-116 kcal/kg/day
What are the energy requirements for a term infant between 6-12 months? 91-100 kcal/kg/day
What are the energy requirements for a term infant at 12 months of age? 100 kcal/day by the end of the 1st year
What is the expected weight gain of a term infant between 0-3 months? 25-35 g/day
What is the expected weight gain of a term infant between 3-6 months? 12-21 g/day
What is the expected weight gain of a term infant between 6-12 months? 10-13 g/day
What is the characteristics of colostrum? It is the 1st milk produced after delivery. It is high in protein High in immunoglobulins and Secretory IgA It gradually changes to mature milk over 7-10 days after delivery
How many calories does breast milk provide approximately 20 Kcal
What nutritional supplementation is needed for term infants being breasfed? Vitamin K Vitamin D Iron and Flouride
When do breastfed infants need supplementation of iron? And why? Not until after 6 months Maternal stores of iron plummet after 6 months.
What nutrient needs are increased during pregnancy and/or lactation? Protein, vitamins A, B6, C and D, calcium, iron and zinc
What are the benefits of frequent, early and unrestricted infant nursing? 1. Provides colostrum 2. Helps decrease jaundice because of the laxative effect 3. Allows the baby practice time before milk volume increases. 4. Stimulates uterine contractions 5. Prevents infant hypoglycemia
What are signs of insufficent milk intake in the newborn? 1. failure to regain birth weight by 2 weeks. 2 Weight gain of less than 7oz in 7 days. 3. less than 4 lbs in 4 months
What are the GI/GU signs of insufficent milk intake in a newborn? Fewer than 3-4 stools by day 5 and fewer than 6 urinations by day 5.
What is the color of formula stool? yellow seedy
What is the color of meconium stool? Sticky tar like
By what time should all the meconium be excreted? It should be completely gone in a day.
What is the recommended action for an infant that has jaundice? Continue breastfeeding at least every 2 hours ATC
What are objective measures to determine if an infant is getting enough milk? Weight gain. # of stools. # of urinations
True or False? Healthy breastfed newborns do not need formula, water or juice? True
How do you assess infant formula? What type of formula. How is it prepared. How much formula is in the bottle. How many bottles does the baby consume
When should an infant begin to receive whole milk? After 12 months of age
When should an infant begin recieving skim milk or low fat milk? It should not be given before 2 years of age.
When should solids be added to the infants diet? Between 4-6 months. Closer to 6 to reduce risk of food allergies.
What are the factors that indicate if an infant is ready for solids? 1. Current weight twice that of birth weight or about 13 lbs 2. more than 32 oz of formula/d, >8-10 feedings/d, persistent dissatifaction due to hunger
How much juice should an infant get and at what age? 4 oz/day by 4-6 months
What are examples of "first-stage" foods? Strained infant juices, single grain cereals and pureed fruits and vegetables.
What foods should be avoided while an infant is getting "first-stage" foods? Wheat, eggs, milk and citrus
What are examples of "second-stage" foods? Smooth, mixed-ingredient foods, such as mixed vegetables or meat dinners, such as chicken noodle
At what age does an infant get "first stage" foods? 4-6 months
At what age does an infant get "second-stage" foods"? 6-9 months
When is a child ready for "third stage" foods? Can sit well without support, have some teeth, and have begun self feeding.
When can finger foods be introduced? When the infant develops the pincer grasp
At what age should "third stage" foods be introduced? 9-10 months
What food should be avoided in the first year of life and why? Honey due to risk of botulism
When should peanut butter be avoided? During the first year of life due to risk of allergies. 3 years if there is a family hx of peanut allergies
What is the average growth weight of a child in the US? birth weight quadruples by age 2
What is the average growth length? Birth length doubles by age 4
When is the growth spurt for an average American boy? 12 to 15
When is the growth spurt for an average American girl? 10-13 years of age
What is the role of the parent in the feeding process? Determines when and what the child will eat
What is the role of the child in the feeding process? Determines if and how much s/he will eat
What is the calorie consumption guideline for a toddler? about a 1000 calories/day for the average toddler
What foods should a child under 3 avoid Hot dogs, hard candies, nuts, seeds, popcorn and chunky peanut butter.
How many times per day should toddlers eat? 4-6 times / day
How much should the total fat intake be? No more than 30% of total cal and no less than 20%
How much dietary cholesterol should be consumed? less than 300 mg
What is the most common nutrition deficiency in the US? lack of iron
How much milk shoudl toddlers consume? 16-24 ounces of milk per day
True or False? Most children in the US need vitamin and mineral supplmentation? False (p. 17)
How much Vitamin D should infants get? 200 IU per day
Under what circumstances should breastfed babies receive vitamin D supplmentation? All breastfed infants should receive vitamin D supplmentation unless they are weaned to at least 500 ml per day of vitamin D fortified formula
True or False? All nonbreastfed infants who are ingesting less than 500 ml per day of vitamin d-fortifed formula should receive vitamin D supplementation? True
How is overweight in children defined? BMI = 95th percentile
When is a child at risk for overweight? BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile
What laboratory tests should you do if you suspect anemia? CBC, reticulocyte count, serum iron, ferritin and total iron binding capacity
What labs would you order to assess protein staus? Serum albumin, total protein and prealbumin
Created by: lknightly