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NDT Glossary

NDT from Study CD

Abnormal muscle tone Abnormalities (i.e., stiffness or tension) in the force with which a muscle resists being lengthened. Changes in neural control, muscle properties, and connective tissue properties can be contributing factors.
Abnormal postural tone Abnormalities in the distribution of muscle tone in antigravity muscles such that they are unable to simultaneously maintain posture against gravity and adapt stiffness to allow flexibility necessary for movement.
Alignment The fundamental arrangement of body segments relative to each other with reference to the force of gravity and the base of support.
AFO Ankle-foot orthosis designed to align the foot and ankle, provide stability when walking or standing, support weakness around the ankle and foot, and help prevent deformities.
Anticipatory postural control The production of forces prior to the intended movement that is critical to setting the posture to maintain the body in appropriate alignment against the force of gravity while allowing tasks to be accomplished.
Assistive technology Any useful device that assists an individual to actively perform tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible due to underlying system impairments (e.g.,mobility aids, computer @ communication devices, personal care items, positioning equipment).
Ataxia Failure of musc coord; irregularity of muscular action. An inability to coord muscle act during voluntary mov't, so that smooth mov'ts occur. Most often due to disorders of the cerebellum or the post. columns of the spinal cord; may involve the limbs head
Athetosis A condition in which there is a constant succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of flexion and extension, pronation and supination of the fingers and hands, and sometimes of the toes and feet. Usually caused by an extrapyramidal lesion
Axial rotation Angular motion of a body part in a direction perpendicular to its axis or in its transverse plane. It is often used to describe the movements of the shoulder girdle or pelvic girdle around the spine
Base of support (BOS) All points of the body in contact with surfaces and the area of the surfaces between the points.
Biomechanical components of movement Quantitative characteristics of movement based on the interaction of internal and external forces acting in and on the body (e.g.,range of motion, body composition, strength, skeletal and articular structures).
Body Dimension One of the four dimensions of the NDT Enablement Model based on the ICF model that includes characteristics of the physiology of body system functions and body structure, such as organs or limbs.
Cadence The number of steps an individual takes while walking per unit of time. The measurement is usually given in steps per minute.
Center of mass (COM) Hypothetical point of a body at which the total mass is considered concentrated.
Cerebral Palsy (CP) A group of d/o in the dev't of mov't & posture causing activ limit's that are attrib to non-progressive disturb. that occur in the devel'g fetal or infant brain. The motor d/o of CP are often accomp by disturbs of sens, cogn, commun., percep +/or behavio
Claudication A symptom of peripheral vascular disease due to deficiency of blood supply in exercising muscles characterized by pain, weakness and tension after walking has begun, intensifying until walking becomes impossible.
Co-activation The simultaneous activation of agonist and antagonist muscle groups crossing the same joint and acting in the same plane.
Cocontraction See co-activation.
Compensations New or alternative strategies or movement substitutions used to accomplish a functional goal or task, albeit less efficiently and effectively.
Constraints on movement Influences (internal and external) that restrain or limit movement.
Contextual factors Concepts in the ICF and NDT Enablement Models that include characteristics related to personalattributes and environment factors, including physical,social, and attitudinal features that influence all dimensions.
Coordination The process by which movement components are sequenced and organized temporally and their relative magnitudes determined in order to produce a functional movement pattern of synergy. The quality of the temporal-spatial execution of a task.
Criterion-referenced tests Tests that compare an individual’s performance to a predetermined behavioral criterion and report performance in terms of what the report performance in terms of what the individual can do.
Data collection The 1st part of the client assess't when the PT gathers info to define the scope of the assess't & determines relevant proced for exam. It usually incl reason for referral, history, gen. level of funct, environ charact, & family & client goals and obj.
Degrees of freedom The number of separate independent elements of movement in a system that must be controlled to complete a task.
Diaschisis (Neuronal shock) The temporary disruption of function produced by the shock of the injury to the brain tissue affecting neuronal processes far from the site of the lesion.
Distributive Neural Model A model of neural control that recognizes that numerous connections exist between and within levels of the nervous system.
Dorsiflexion Movement at the ankle joint in which the foot moves toward the anterior aspect of the lower leg.
Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) A systems theory which proposes that meaningful tasks, in specific environmental conditions, spontaneously self-organize the various body systems, which then adopt a specific organization to create or change the movement patterns.
Dyskinesia Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement. Difficulty in performing voluntary movements. Term usually used in relation to various extrapyramidal disorders.
Dystonia Sustained muscle contractions that result in twisting and abnormal postures. It is a hyperkinetic movement disorder. The muscle contractions are longer lasting and the muscles involved are more likely to be the muscles of the arm/forearm.
Edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intercellular spaces of the body (e.g.,connective tissue, a serous cavity).
Effective posture and movement The motor dimension of the NDT Enablement Model that includes the functional or positive domain. Actions that are flexible, reliable, and solve motor problems for the individual at any time across the life span
Endurance See muscle endurance
Evidence-based practice The use of current research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values to guide clinical decision making
Environmental affordances The environmental characteristics that support a person’s ability to perform functional tasks or activities
Environmental contexts The physical and abstract aspects of the environment, including the persons in it, that can directly or indirectly influence the outcome of movement
Examination The part of the client assessment that includes comprehensive screening & spec testing by the PT. It incl observ of posture & movement,standardized testing or observation of functional activities, and limitations and review of the individual systems
Extrinsic feedback External information from the environment that influences a motor performance
Facilitation The strategy of therapeutic handling that makes a posture or movement easier or more likely to occur
Feedback (closed-loop system) Motor control processing in which sensory feedback, a reactive system, is used for the ongoing production of skilled movement, detection of errors, and comparing and correcting movement as it occurs to reach a goal
Feed-forward (open-loop system) Anticipatory sensory information to prepare and initiate postural and movement requirements of the tasks in advance of the motor acts. Motor control processing that does not rely on sensory feedback during execution of the movement
Evaluation: Incl. synth of date coll&exam&based on clinjudg't&prob solv.Id's the imp factors from ea.dimen domains&descr relation the enabl'tmodel. Incl the analysis of relat as it relates to the pts prob,potentfor change&forms hypoth linkg rx plan to antic outcomes
Flexor synergy Identifies the atypical movement of either the upper or lower extremity that involves flexor movement of all the major joints when the client attempts to move the extremity
Fractionated movement Precise, independent joint movements or dissociation of the movements within the fingers, thumb, and hand
Frontal plane Any plane that divides the body or body segment longitudinally into anterior and posterior portions. The motions of abduction and adduction occur in the frontal plane
Functional activity The actual performance of a task or action by an individual (World Health Organization 2001)
Functional integrity The positive dimension of the body’s functional and structural states in the ICF and NDT Enablement Models (World Health Organization 2001)
Functional activity limitation An individual’s difficulties or inabilities to execute functional activities (World Health Organization 2001)
Functional outcomes Statements of measurable, observable changes in function. Generalized Motor Programs (GMP)
Goals See impairment-related goals
Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) A five-level, objective classification of severity of motor impairments in young children with CP which assists in determining the efficacy of intervention on motor function and predicting prognosis
Habitual repertoire An individual’s typical way of moving which has been practiced so often that it becomes the easiest way for the person to move
Hemorrhagic stroke A stroke resulting from rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
Home-based intervention Interventions that are carried out in the client’s home
Hypertonia Broad term that includes a group of neural and non-neural mechanisms expressed as excessive tone, tension, or stiffness of the skeletal muscles
Hypokinesia Lack of variety or limited amount of spontaneous movement
Hypotonia Group of conditions that include diminished tone, tension, decreased ability to generate voluntary muscle force, excessive joint flexibility, and postural instability
Impairments Problems in body structure or function; manifestations of underlying pathology (World Health Organization 2001). Impairment-related goals
Individual dimension The dimension of the ICF or NDT Enablement Model that includes domains of functional activities and limitations (World Health Organization 2001)
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) A 3 level classif of health and disability published by the WHO in 2001 to describe and communicate the relationships among body, individual, and social dimensions and the domains of function and disability (World Health Organization 2001)
Ineffective posture and movement The motor dimension of the NDT Enablement Model that includes the disability or negative domain
Inhibition of movement The strategy that an NDT PT uses which involves spec handling of a pt to restrict, redirect, or constrain atypical or ineffic postures&mov't that interfere with the dev't of more select mot patterns&efficient funct. Usually done in combination w facilit
Interdisciplinary model A service-delivery model that encourages members of the medical, educational, and therapeutic disciplines, as well as the family, to partner in order to establish outcomes, goals, and treatment strategies
Intervention The use of medical, surgical, therapeutic, educational, and assistive technology or equipment to overcome problems that prevent health and well-being and enhance the individual’s performance of life roles
Intrinsic feedback Feedback from the internal states of the learner that influence motor performance
Ischemic stroke A stroke caused by insufficient supply of blood and oxygen to a part of the brain
Isolated movements See fractionated movements
Key points of control Precise places that the therapist physically contacts the client to facilitate or inhibit posture and movement sequences
Kinematics Branch of mechanics used to describe motion of a body without regard to forces or torques (Neumann 2002, 23)
Kinetics Branch of mechanics used to describe the effect of forces on the body (Neumann 2002, 23)
Knowledge of performance Augmented feedback related to the nature of the movement produced to complete a task (Schmidt and Lee 1999, 415)
Knowledge of results Augmented feedback related to the nature of the result produced in terms of the environmental goal (Schmidt and Lee 1999, 415). Latency
Life-span approach A treatment framework that assumes that goals and intervention strategies must change over the life cycle to continue to meet the client’s changing needs
Long-term outcomes Measurable, funct long-term results of rx are pt focused. Docum of outcomes should incl action verb, funct perfor, conditions under which the perfor will be met, & crit the perfor must meet. Long-term is variable based on the setting&popul being served
Metacarpal heads The distal ends of the metacarpals of the hand
Metatarsal heads The distal ends of the metatarsals of the foot
Morphology Description of body structures (e.g., height, weight, length, circumferences of limbs and trunk)
Motor control The ability to regulate or direct mechanisms essential to posture and movement
Motor development An ongoing process that occurs throughout the life span based on changes in neural and body systems, producing specific motor skills based on experience, maturation, learning, and aging
Motor dimension A dimension that is unique to the NDT Enablement Model that describes effective or ineffective posture and movement
Motor learning The set of processes associated with practice or experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the individual’s capabilities for producing skilled actions
Motor milestones Discrete behaviors that arise from continuous development of neural and body systems that in and of themselves do not contain the motor behavior
Motor performance A temporary change seen in motor behavior seen during practice sessions (Shumway-Cook and Woollacott 2001, 27-28)
Motor planning An internal process that occurs after ideation that entails a projected action sequence formulated prior to the init of the motor task, involving multiple systems organized according to the inherent requirmts of the task&internal status of the individual
Movement time The time required to execute a task-specific movement once it has been initiated
Multiple system impairments Ineffective posture and movement components that result from impairments in multiple body systems
Muscle endurance Capacity of a muscle to contract continuously at sub-maximal levels to perform work
Muscle stiffness The amount of force a muscle must produce to cause a change in length; it is a measure of resistance to motion
Muscle synergies Groups of muscles crossing many joints that are constrained or “coupled” to work together as a unit in order to complete a functional task or action in a specific environment
Muscle tone The force (i.e., stiffness or tension) with which a muscle resists being lengthened. Changes in neural control, muscle properties, and connective-tissue properties are all contributing factors
NDT assumptions Hypothetical statements that underlie best practice standards of the(NDT) Approach. Ideas that originated with the Bobaths and recent changes derived from the motor sciences compose the current therapeutic model of NDT
NDT Enablement Model A 4-level classification of health and disability, based on the Intern'l Classification of Funct, Disability, and Health (ICF) from the WHO which illustrates the relationships among body, motor,individual and soc dimensions, &funct &disability domains
Negative signs of neuropathology Those characteristics that constrain posture and movement because of their absence as a result of neuropathology, (e.g., insufficient force generation, impaired postural control, poverty of movement)
Neural stiffness A change in muscle length over change in force, which is muculated by contextual factors
Neuronal groups Collections of strongly connected neurons which serve as the basis functional unit of the nervous system
Neuronal Group Selection Theory (NGST) A theory developed by Edelman which proposes that neural structures and the other body systems are organized for diversity and are capable of selecting from a multitude of species specific&task spec responses,to produce variable, adapt motor behaviors
Neuronal maps Connections of neuronal groups distributed among vast areas of thenervous system&organized so that distinct areas of percept, cogn, emotion,posture, & mov't are spontaneously activated in response to task conditions,forming global maps for efficiency
Neural shock The temporary injury to intact areas as a result of insult in the central nervous system (CNS)
Norm-referenced tests Tests that compare an individual’s performance with the performance of peers without disability, using a standard format
Outcomes See functional outcomes
Overflow A normal control mechanism where movement is being learned or executed with effort. Widespread motor responses in muscles of the same body segment and/or muscles far removed. Can be overridden as needed. Called “associated movement” by the Bobaths
Palpate To examine with the hand; to feel the state of the body or structure including muscles, joints, and connective tissue
Participation An individual’s involvement in a life situation (WHO 2001)
Participation restrictions Problems an individual may have in involvement in a life situation (WHO 2001)
Pathophysiology of the health condition The underlying medical or injury process, at the cellular or tissue level, of either neural or body structures, that interferes or interrupts the normal physiological& develop'l processes in any dimension of the individual, such as CP, stroke, or TBI
Patterns of weight bearing The particular distribution of the body weight at rest and in movement in relation to the support surface
Plan of Care Statements that specify the anticipated goals and expected outcomes,predicted level of optimal improvements, specific interventions to be used, proposed duration and frequency of the interventions, and re-examination schedule
Plantarflexion Movement of the ankle, increasing the angle between the foot and the anterior portion of the lower leg or pointing of the toes
Plasticity The ability to show modification or change
Positive signs of neuropathology Signs or symptoms in the neuromotor system that are present due to a central nervous system (CNS) pathology, but are not normally present (e.g., spasticity, hypertonus, excessive co-activation, clonus)
Postural control Control of the body’s position in space for the purposes of stability against the force of gravity and orientation of the body segments to each other in taskspecific relationships (Shumway-Cook and Woollacott 2001)
Postural tone The distribution of muscle tone among antigravity muscle groups that are constrained to act together to maintain posture against the force of gravity and simultaneously adapt stiffness to allow the flexibility necessary for movement
Practice To work at repetitively so as to become proficient
Preparation in treatment Treatment strategies that addresses individual system impairments and ineffective posture and movement
Primary impairments Impairments in body systems that are directly the result of underlying pathology
Proactive balance Anticipating the appropriate relationships between body segments in a task specific context. Also see anticipatory postural control
Pronation Tri-planar motion in the foot and ankle that includes ankle dorsiflexion, forefoot abduction and eversion, or medial rotation of the forearm
Range of motion (ROM) The degrees of movement at a specific joint that can be measured by goniometer, dependent on the flexibility of the joint structures and muscle length. Measured as either active ROM or passive ROM.
Reaction time The interval between a stimulus and the actual initiation of the movement
Reactive balance The ability to respond to perturbation from the environment, or selfinitiated mov'ts, which displace the COM outside the BOS; also called equilibrium reactions
Recovery The reorganization and plasticity changes in theCNS which imply that an individual can perform the function in the same manner and with the same efficiency and effectiveness as before CNS injury
Rigidity A form of dyskensia resulting in increased resistance of a limb to movement in both flexion and extension throughout the entire range of movement. It is not velocity dependent
Sackett’s levels of evidence A commonly sited method of assessing research based on the five levels of scientific evidence
Sagittal plane A plane that divides the body longitudinally into left and right sides and includes the motions of flexion and extension of the limbs and trunk
Scaling Grading or appropriately matching the size of the muscle response to the functional task or to the size of the perturbation
Secondary impairments Problems or signs that do not occur directly from the original pathophysiology, but result from the brain lesion interacting with other body systems in specific environmental contexts and in performing different functional tasks
Selection The process by which competing neuronal groups provide structural diversity in the formation of the anatomy of the brain and guarantee that the brain and body maintain the conditions for adapting in a changing environment
Selective control See fractionated movement
Self-organization A concept within the Dynamic Systems Model that hypothesizes that interacting systems can organize themselves and create motor patterns
Self-referenced tests Non-standardized testing that compares a pts performance at two different pts in time. An informal, non-invasive measure often used at the begin&end of a rx period to give a baseline measure or record change or lack of change, using the pt as comparison
Sensory processing The ability of the nervous system to perceive, interpret, modulate, and organize sensory input for use in generating or adapting motor responses
Sensory systems Body syst respon for receiv info from the envir thru spec cells&transmitting it to the is used for percep,contr of mov't,regul of the funct of int org&maint of arousal.The syst inclthe somatosens(proprio,tactile,pain&temp), visual,vestib,aud etc
Sequencing impairments Activation of muscles in the wrong sequence for the action
Short-term outcomes Measur, funct short-term results ofrx are pt focused. Doc of outcomes include action verb, the funct perfor, the condi under which the perforwill be met,&the criteria the perfor must meet. “Short term” is variable based on the setting&popul being served
Single-treatment outcome A measurable, funct outcome resulting from a single rx session that is pt focused . Doc of an outcome should include an action verb, the funct performance, the conditions under which the performance will be met, and the criteria the performance must meet
Skeletal impairments Deformities or deficiencies of the skeletal system. Social dimension
Spasticity Velocity-dependent increases in tonic stretch reflexes w/ exaggerated tendon jerks&clonus resulting from hyperexcitability of stretch reflex. Clinically confirmed by the incr resist to rapid passive lengthening of ind muscles at rest. A char of UMN path
Stability The ability to maintain the center of mass over the base of support
Stance phase The part of the gait cycle from heel-strike to toe-off divided into initial contact, loading, mid-stance, and terminal stance. Stance phase represents sixty percent(60%) of the gait cycle
Stiffness See Muscle stiffness and Neural stiffness
Stroke A sudden focal neur deficit resulting from the disruption to the blood supply in the brain. Ischemic stroke is related to thrombotic, embolic, or hemodynamic factors. Hemorrhagic strokes result from rupture of the vessels of the brain&subsequent release
Swing phase The part of the gait cycle from toe-off to heel-strike, divided into, initial swing, mid-swing, and terminal swing. Swing phase represents forty percent (40%) of the normal gait cycle
Synaptogensis Neuronal sprouting which attempts to compensate for CNS injury andreestablish functional pathways
Systems Theory A model of motor control developed by Bernstein which contends thatbiological organisms, like other physical systems, are multi-dimensional in which no onesystem has priority in organizing or determining the behavior of the system
Temporal impairments Neuromotor impairments related to timing of muscle activation
Therapeutic handling A primary intervention strategy that NDT therapists use to assist a client achieve independent function. These techniques of facilitation and inhibition target the client’s posture and movement and system impairments
Therapeutic management team Group of individuals comprised of the client, familymembers and caregivers, and all other relevant professionals who establish outcomes,goals, and intervention strategies
Tibial torsion A twist in the shaft of the tibia along the longitudinal axis
Topographical distribution A descriptive classification of cerebral palsy (CP) based onthe distribution of abnormalities in tone, posture, and movement (e.g., diplegia,hemiplegia, quadriplegia)
Transfer of learning The ability to perform a learned skill in various contexts
Transitions To move through space from one position to another
Transverse (horizontal) plane A plane that is at right angles to both the sagittal and frontal planes and divides the body into superior and inferior portions. Motions of rotation occur around the longitudinal axis
Treatment strategies Options for interventions that a clinician, family member, or client can utilize to help increase functional abilities, improve posture and movement, and address system impairments
Tremor Alternating activity of the agonist and antagonist controlling a joint, leading to alternating joint movement that is small in amplitude and high in frequency resulting from a pathology in the basal ganglia connections .(Latash 1998, 262)
Weakness The inability to generate sufficient levels of force in a muscle or group of muscles for the purposes of posture and movement. Weakness can result from a primary neuromuscular impairment or secondary changes in the musculoskeletal system
Weight bearing The distribution of the body weight at rest in relation to the supportsurface and in anticipation of movement
Weight shifting The ability to change the distribution of the body weight relative to the base of support in anticipation of or during movement
Created by: mwashburn



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