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# Ap Biology Ch. 3

### Water and the Fitness of the Environment

cohesion The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds
adhesion The attraction between different kinds of molecules
surface tension A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
kinetic energy The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
heat The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form
temperature A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules
Celsius scale A temperature scale (°C) equal to 5/9 (°F - 32) that measures the freezing point of water at 0°C and the boiling point of water at 100°C
calorie (cal) The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie, usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie
kilocalorie (kcal) A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C
joule (J) A unit of energy: 1 J = 0.239 cal; 1 cal = 4.184 J
specific heat The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C
heat of vaporization The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
evaporative cooling The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state
solution A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known
solute A substance that is dissolved in a solution
hydration shell The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
hydrophilic Having an affinity for water
colloid A mixture made up of a liquid and particles that (because of theri large size) remain suspended in that liquid
hydrophobic Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water
molecular mass The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule; sometimes called molecular weight
mole (mol) The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogrado's number of molecules
molarity A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
hydrogen ion A single proton with a charge of 1 +. The dissociation of a water molecule (H₂0) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+)
hydroxide ion A water molecule that has lost a proton; OH-
acid A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
base A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
pH A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14
buffer A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH wheen extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution
acid precipitation Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic that pH 5.6
Created by: gnomealot

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