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Nutrition Ch.5


Triglycerides Made of one molecule of glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached; provide energy, shock absorption, and warmth; carry fat soluble vitamins
Fatty Acids Long chains of carbon and hydrogen with an acid group on the end. Saturated and Unsaturated.
Saturated All single bonds between carbons, simulate cholesterol production in the liver, solid at room temperature
Unsaturated Double bonds, lower cholesterol, usually liquid at room temperature
Hydrogenation Adding Hydrogens to double or triple bonds
Cis Identical atoms are on the same side of a double bond, make its look bent
Trans Identical atoms are on the same side of a double bond, make its look straight
Arachidonic Acid An omega-6 fatty acid with 20 carbons and 4 double bonds; help maintain the structure and function of cell membrane
Docosahexanoic Acid An omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbons and 6 double bonds; required in the retina and cerebrum
Eicosanoids Fatty acid derivative that regulate blood pressure, blood clotting, blood lipids and immune systems
Phospholipids Triglycerol with a phosphate group attached
Sterols Multiple rings lipids, used to make bile, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, and vitamin D
Atherosclerosis The build up of lipids on the inner wall of arteries, take years to occur
Hydrophobic Water repelling
Hydrophilic Water soluble (attracts water)
Digestion of lipids The steroid side of bile binds to the lipids that is flowing on top of chyme. Then the amino acid side of bile mixes with the water bringing the lipids with it. Next the enzyme Lipase breaks down the lipids
Absorption of Lipids The lipids joins into clusters called micelles, then proteins are added. Next, the cluster enters the lymphatic system to get broken down as it travels.
Lipoproteins Clusters of lipids and proteins. 4 types: Chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, and HDL
Chylomicron 95% Lipids
VLDL: Very Low Density Lipoprotein 90% Lipids/ 10% Proteins
LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein 80% Lipids/ 20% Proteins
HDL: High Density Lipoprotein 50% Lipids/ 50% Proteins
Lipoprotein Lipase An enzyme on the surface of an adipose cell, breaks lipids from lipoproteins and pass them thru into the cell
Hormone Sensitive Lipase Located inside adipose cells, breaks down the lipids and releases them so other cells can use them
Hazards of fish oil Absorbs some vitamins and take them out of circulation; May contain toxin as the oil come from fish liver; Contain high amount of vitamins A & D which can be toxic; High calories, and Expensive
Recommend Fat Intake 15 to 30% of daily calories
Calorie Reduced Fat substitutes Made of proteins and carbohydratesm considered to be GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe). Ex. Simplesse and Maltodextrin
Simplesse Egg and milk protein that blended into tiny spires that simulate the creamy of fat, non heat resistant, found in ice cream
Maltodextrin Made of carbohydrate that taste like butter
Calorie Free Fat substitutes Not digested or absorbed. Major example: Olestra
Olestra Made of sucrose + 6 to 8 fatty acids, can be heated, does interfere with vitamin E and K
Created by: Futuredoctor09