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Nutrition Ch.4


Structure of Carbohydrates C6+H12+O6= standard chemical structure, usually forms 5 or 6 sized rings
Monosaccharides Single unit sugar, includes glucose, fructose, and galactose
Glucose Hexagon (6 sized ring); mildly sweet; most common fuel molecules for the body
Fructose Pentagon (5 sized ring); very sweet; found in fruit, honey and corn; Used to be called Levulose
Galactose Hexagon (6 sized ring); found in milk
Condensation Splitting of a H and OH from two different molecules to form water and forming a bond between the two molecules
Hydrolysis Water splits and attacks a bond causing a molecule to break
Disaccharides Two sugar units, includes sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Sucrose Made of fructose and glucose; taste very sweet; table sugar
Lactose Made of galactose and glucose; found in milk
Maltose Made of two glucose; found in grains
Complex carbohydrates AKA polysaccarides, many sugar units, includes glycogen and starch
Glycogen A lot of glucose joined together for storage in the liver or muscle, possible to break down
Starch A lot of glucose joined together for storage in plants, possible to break down
Maltase An enzyme that breaks down maltose
Sucrase An enzyme that breaks down sucrose
Lactase An enzyme that breaks down lactose
Lactose Intolerance Caused by too little lactase; the lactose remains in the intestine and attracts water; causes diarrhea; bacteria use the sugar and produce acids and gases
Glycogenesis The formation of glycogen
Glycogenolysis The break down of glycogen
Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose from proteins or fats
Effects of epinephrine Release by the adrenal glands and autonomic nervous system during stress and fear, causes the breakdown of glycogen
Health effects and misconceptions about sugar Sugar is not unnatural; temporary excess does not causes harm; does not causes diabetes or ulcers; does not cause hyperactivity, but can contribute to it; does cause cavities
Recommended carbohydrate intake 50 to 60% of daily calories
Fiber Molecule found in plants that cannot be broken down by human enzymes
Cellulose Found in plants cell wall, made completely of glucose
Hemicellulose A branching molecule made of many different monosaccarides, found in cereals
Pectins Contain many monosaccarides, found in fruits and vegetables, found in gel in water
Gums and Mucilages Composed of many monosaccarides, used by plants to seal injuries
Lignin Strong fiber found in tough woody parts of plants, such as in carrots or seeds
Phytic Acid Component of plant seeds, combined minerals ad carries it out of the body, can cause mineral deficiency
Health effects of fiber Speed movement thru the intestines, reduce colon cancer, lower blood cholesterol, help with weight control, no calories, can causes gases and less nutrients absorption
Recommend intake of fiber 20 to 30 grams a day
Diverticulosis Having weakness and bulging in the intestinal walls, fiber can help reduces bulges
Raw sugar The first product made in sugar processing, contain dirt and contaminants, not legal in USA
Turbinado sugar Refined and cleaned, but not bleached
Molasses Thick brown syrup of sugar
Granulated sugar Crystalline sucrose, 99.9% pure
Confectioner;s sugar Finely grind sucrose
Brown sugar Refined white sugar with molasses added
Maple sugar Mostly sucrose from the sap of maple trees
Dextrose Old name of glucose
4 parts of a wheat kernel Outermost- Husk (cannot eat), Next layer- Bran (tough fiber), Next layer- Endosperm (white carbohydrate), Innermost- Germ (embryo)
Whole grain flour Contain the germ, endosperm, and bran
Unbleached flour Tan colored endosperm flour
White flour Endosperm flour which has been refined and bleached
Enrichment Act of 1942 Requires that vitamins and minerals be added to bread
4 FDA approved artifical sweeteners Saccharin, Aspartame/Nutrasweet, Acesulfame potassium, and Sucralose/Splenda
Saccharin 450 times sweeter than normal sugar, has a metallic after taste
Aspartame/ Nutrasweet Made of two amino acids, 200 times sweeter than normal sugar, Losing its sweetness with cooking
Acesulfame Potassium AKA Sunnette, organic acid, 200 times sweeter than normal sugar, stable at all temperatures
Sucralose/ Splenda Sucrose with chlorine attached, 600 times sweeter than normal sugar
Artifical Sweetners under consideration Alitame and Cyclamate
Alitame Made of two amino acids, 2000 times sweeter than normal sugar
Cyclamate 30 times sweeter, Caution: bacteria in intestine may be able to turn it into a carcinogen (cancer causing cell)
Sugar alcohols Occurs naturally, have about half the calories, some have a chemical after taste, absorb slower so helpful to diabetic, often can cause gas and diarrhea, cannot cause cavities. Ex= Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Truvia
Created by: Futuredoctor09