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Step 2: Cardio7

Cardio 7

QuestionAnswer
ECG showing various morphologies of QRS complex indicates? Cardiac tamponade (heart shifting around in sac causes altered QRS)
What is the organism that causes myocarditis in S. America? What is the dz called? Trypanosoma cruzii. Chagas Dz
T/F: drug toxicity can cause myocarditis? True
MCC of myocarditis in babies? Definitive Dx is by_____. Virus. Dx by BIOPSY
RHD is caused by ________ infxn. What is actual pathology? Group A Strept. Antibodies vs this bacteria start attacking heart valves (usually Mitral)
What 4 labs are raised in RHD (hint: all are 3-letter acronyms) WBCs, ESR, C-RP, ASO
ECG change in RHD? increased PR interval
What do you give prophylactically for oral surgery in valve damage pt (for RHD prophylaxis)? GI/GU surgery? oral: amoxicillin. GI/GU: amp+gent before surgery. amoxicillin after surgery
What is JONES criteria for (what dz)? What are its components? For RHD. J<3NES PEACE: Joints, Heart(carditis), Nodules, Erythema Nodosum, Sydenham's chorea. Minor criteria: Previous RHD, ECG (PR increased), Arthralgias, CRP/ESR, Elevated temp. 2maj, 1maj/2min
What are the negative-culture endocarditis organsims? HACEK bacteria. H flu, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella
What is endocarditis? Bacterial infection of inner lining of heart (may or may not involve valves)
precipitating factors of bacterial endocarditis? congenital heart dz, IVDU, prosthetic valves
Prosthetic valves are susceptible to endocarditis by which oragnism? Staph epidermidis
T/F you should give oral ABx for endocarditis? False. Always IV
what ABx used for Strept viridans endocarditis? IV Pen G, or IV ceftriaxone
osler nodes, janeway lesions, splinter hemmorrhage, roths spots. define each. what dz? osler=nodes on fingertips and toes, janeway= petechiae, splinter= hemm in nail bed, roths= hemm in retina. Found in endocarditis
What is pre-HTN range? 120-139/80-89
What is Rx of a pt with BP >130/80 who has DM, CAD, or Kidney Dz? Put them on medications. If no other dz, just make lifestyle mods
What is the first test you do if renal artery stenosis is suspected? What is the "gold standard" (not usually done first though)? do MRA of renal arteries. Renal arteriogram is gold standard, but too invasive
Renal artery USG can be accompanied with admin of what drug? captopril
Vascular resistance is high in all types of shock except which 2? neurogenic and septic (vasodilation)
HR is low in which shock? neurogenic
PCWP is high after fluid challenge in what shock type? neurogenic and septic
Rx of cardiogenic shock? Dobutamine or dopamine
Rx of septic shock? NE
When is HTN diagnosed? 3 consecutive >140s or >90d readings
First drug in HTN? Thiazide diuretic
Isolated Systolic HTN is found in what population? Cause? Rx? in elderly d/t rigid arteries. Rx is HCTZ
What is more effective for HTN Rx: alcohol reduction or smoking cessation? alcohol reduction
After how much time should you recheck someone who was normotensive before, but is now >140/90 2 months
what drug is c/i in bilateral renal stenosis? ACEi's
Hyperkalemia is a s/e (and therefore a c/i) of which anti-HTNive? ACEi's
What is the order of anti-HTN drugs given to asthmatic? HCTZ first (as usual). NEVER give Non-Selective Bblockers (Propranolol, Timolol)
What 2 anti-HTN drugs are c/i in DM? Thiazides (impair Glc tolerance), Bblocker (mask hypoglycemic Sx)
Why are Thiazides not given to pregnant females? You should avoid anything alters blood volume during pregnancy
What anti-HTN drug is AWESOME to give to osteoperotic patients? Thiazides (raises Ca2+ levels)
Created by: jsad