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step 2: Cardio6

Cardio 6

Heart failure usually has an EF <___% <55%
High output conditions like anemia/hyperthyroidism lead to (systolic/diastolic) dysfunction systolic
Which type of herat dysfunction can have a preserved EF (50%+)? Diastolic dysfunction
What type of heart dysfunction is this: decreased ventricular filling Diastolic dysfunction
What kind of drug is nesiritide? What is it's use? Any s/e? it is rBNP. Used for CHF (ACUTE USE!). Can have dangerous hypotension
Valsalva maneuver has what affect on the murmur in Aortic Stenosis? on HCM? in AS, valsalva decreases the murmur. In HCM, it increases the murmur
Name Angiotensin-II affects on: vessels, adrenals, ANS, kidney, brain, heart vessel=constrxn, adrenal=aldosterone prdxn, ANS=NE(sympathetic tone), kidney=Na+ reabsorption, brain=ADH release+thirst, heard=cntrxn and hypertrophy
Murmurs that start in Apex region, and radiate to Axilla involve what valve? Mitral
Murmurs that are in 2nd intercostal space, and radiate to neck or elsewhere involve what valve? Aortic
Murmurs at left lower sternal border involve what valve? Tricuspid
Murmurs at 2nd-3rd left interspace involve what valve? Pulmonary
Systolic murmur in someone in a hyperkinetic state (like fever, hypoxemia) can be__________ benign/incidental
What is the murmur (@ apex): S1 ||||S2 (late systolic) MVP
Early diastolic murmur at left side of sternum? at upper left side of sternum? AR; PR
MCC of cardiomyopathy? Dilated (90%)
What labs should be checked for suspected uremic pericarditis? Rx? Pathology of fluid involved? check BUN/Cr. Rx with dialysis. The fluid is BLOOD. (uremic pericarditis is seen with renal failure)
decreased PMI after TB or SLE can be due to ______ acute pericarditis
Global ST elevation is seen in _____________. What other ECG finding is seen? acute pericarditis; PR depression
MCC of chronic constrictive pericarditis? Radiation (like Rx of Hodgkins, etc)
Sx of chronic pericarditis involve what part of the heart? Right side (constriction of RV mostly e.g. Kussmaul's sign)
Equal pressure in all chambers of heart usually means? chronic constrictive pericarditis
exudative (high protein) pericardial fluid is indicative of what cause? neoplasm or fibrotic dz
fixed split S2 indicates what congenital heart problem? ASD
_____ sided murmurs increase on inspiration Right-sided
Rx of MR? vasodilators (if symptomatic)
MCC of Mitral Stenosis? Rheumatic Heart Disease
MCC of Aortic Regurg? Aortic-root dilation (usually from aortic dissection)
Disatolic decrescendo murmur, increasing on left lateral decubitus is ______ AR
Water hammer pulse is _______ AR
What is Austin Flint murmur? it is the late diastolic rumble of AR
Capillary pulsations in nail bed is in _______ AR
MCC of Aortic stenosis? congenital bicuspid valve
Crescendo-decrescendo murmur is? AS
Pulsus parvus and tardus is found in _______ AS
Exertional syncope is common in which murmur? AS
Gold standard for Dx of AS is? TEE
What are the 3 symptoms necessary to be present to indicate valve replacement in AS pt? What other 2 scenarios are also indications? sycnope, angina, dyspnea. CABG or LV failure.
Standing cuases S4 to (increase/decrease) in HCM increase
What valve murmur does HCM sound like? AS (crescendo/decrescendo, but with no carotid radiation). However the cause is abnormal MITRAL valve motion
6 main causes of dilated CM? idiopathic (MCC), ABCCDD: alcolhol, beriberi, coxsackie B, cocaine, doxorubicin
DCM can follow what infection? upper resp tract infxn
Rx of HCM? B blockers (very HY!)
Three causes of restrictive CM? sarcoidosis, amyloidosis (liver/kidney may be involved too), hemochromatosis (Rx with phlebotomy
Restrictive CM resembles what type of CHF in symptoms? RHF
Created by: jsad