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step 2: Cardio1

Cardio 1

Ca2+ [increase/decrease] in mycocytes causes increased contractility and stroke volume increase
Na+ in myocytes [increases/decreases] contractility decreases
What is the O2-based formula for determining Cardiac Output? (rate of O2 use)/[(arterial O2 - venous O2)]
Cardiac Output increase during exercise is accomplished by which first: Stroke Volume increase, or Heart Rate increase? Stroke Volume
formula for MAP? 2/3 Diast + 1/3 Syst
What ECG leads are for inferior wall? AVf, II, III
Which coronary artery supplies inferior heart in 90% of cases? Right Coronary Artery (specifically, Posterior descending branch)
Which ECG leads are for IV Septum? Anterior wall? V1, V2, V3 for IV septum. V2, V3, V4 for anterior wall.
What makes ATH plaques visible on CT? Calcification
Chest pain in SLE or steroid users is usually due to ___________. ATH (check resting and exercise ECG)
U wave is a sign of ? relative hypokalemia
Relationship between dypiridamole testing and cardiac steal? Dypiridamole opens up non diseased vessels, while diseased ones stay the same since they are already max dilated.
What 2 isotopes can be used during nuclear stress test? thallium 201, technetium-99m-sestamibi
True/False: you should stop taking heart medicine before exercise test? True: stop taking Bblockers, digoxin, anti-ischemics
What is the gold standard for identifying CAD? coronary angiography
High serum levels of what amino acid are associated with hypercholesterolemia? Homocysteine
What meds can cause raised LDL OCPs, diuretics, testosterone, HRT
What are the ranges for LDL Rx based on # of risk factors? CAD: 100-130 = lifestyle changes, 130+ = statins. (add 30 points for 2+ risk factors, 30 more for 0-1 risk factors)
What is Prinzmetal angina? arterial vasospasm
What Rx for Prinzmetal angina? What do you avoid CCBs (drugs of choice), nitrates. AVOID b-blockers, ASA
Created by: jsad