Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Step2: Neuro2

Neuro 2

What is the MCC of headaches in adults? Tension headaches
How do you investigate sudden, severe headache or neurological deficit? CT (WITHOUT contrast)to r/o hemorrhage
What causes electric-like pain in face, extremely sensitive to triggering (even by wind)? Trigeminal headache
What's the DOC for a Trigeminal headache? Carbamezapine. (other anti-convulsants can be given too)
Migraines are more comming in [males/females] due to __________. Females; estrogen fluctuations
Alcohol is a precipitating factor for _________ headaches. Cluster
Stress/fatigue causes ___________ headaches. Tension
[Migraine, Cluster, Tension] is usually bilateral. Tension
OCPs, menstruation, and foods containing tyramine/nitrates are precipitating factors of __________ headaches. Migraine
Periorbital pain, unilateral, recurrent: these are KKs of _________ headaches. Cluster
Aura, photophobia are Sx of _________ headaches. Migraines
Never put a females with migraines + aura on _______. OCPs (DVT risk)
Rx of Tension headache? NSAIDs
Rx of Cluster headache? 100% O2 (impt!) + sumatriptan/ergots
Rx of Migraine? Sumaptriptan + ergots +/- antiemetics
What 5 agents can be used as Migraine prophylactics? CCBs (verapamil), B-blockers (esp if comorbid HTN), TCAs (if comorbid depression), NSAIDs (menstrual cause or arthritis comorbidity), anticonvulsants (valproate, topiramate, gabapentin)
What is the likely cause of headache: Obese female with papilledema? Pseudotumor cerebri
What is the likely cause of headache: Jaw muscle pain while chewing? Temporal arteritis
What is the likely cause of headache: Periorbital pain w/ Horner syndrome? Cluster headache
What is the likely cause of headache: Lacrimation and/or rhinorrhea? Cluster headache
What is the likely cause of headache: "Worst headache of my life"? Subarachnoid hemmorrhage (berry aneurysm)
What is the likely cause of headache: raised ESR? Temporal arteritis
What is the likely cause of headache: headache + extraocular muscle palsy? cavernous sinus thrombosis
What is the likely cause of headache: scotomatas prior to h/a? Migraine
What is the likely cause of headache: occurs days after a trauma to the head, persists? Subdural hematoma
Acute focal neuro deficits lasting <24h are ________. TIA (transient ischemic attacks)
What does carotid bruit in a TIA patient suggest? ATH of carotids. Do USG to quantify.
The first line of radiology in TIA patients is __________. CT to r/o bleeding (MRI is for ischemia!)
What is the purpose of ECHO in a TIA patient? To determine septic emboli, AS, or mural thrombus as a cause
Most dangerous outcome of peudotumor cerebri is___________. Blindness
If vomitting PRECEDES headache, and headache worsens over days-weeks, you should suspect ___________. Brain tumor
What is the first line Rx for pseudotumor cerebri? Acetozolamide
Anticoagulant of choice in pt with TIA/Stroke: First TIA? ASA (prophylactic)
Anticoagulant of choice in pt with TIA/Stroke: due to Afib? warfarin
Anticoagulant of choice in pt with TIA/Stroke: w/ coronary artery dz? clopidogrel
Anticoagulant of choice in pt with TIA/Stroke: Repeat TIA/stroke while taking ASA? agronox/clopidogrel
3 scenarios where you do carotid endarterectomy for TIA/stroke patients? 1. symptoms + 70-99% occlusion (strong benefit) 2. symptoms + 50-69% occlusion (moderate benefit) 3. asymptomatic + 80-99% occlusion, and expected to live longer than 5y by a surgeon w/ <3% complication rate
SSx (5) of carotid artery stenosis? Bruit, TIAs, reversible neuro defecits, transient u/l blindness (amaurosis fugax), CVAs
Nonsurgical Rx of carotid stenosis? HTN control, Lipid control, DM control, aspirin
Acute focal neuro defecit lastin >24h is ________. Stroke
What are the 2 types of stroke? Ischemic and hemorrhagic
Most common artery involved in embolism->ischemic stroke is _______________. Middle Cerebral Artery
What is the radiology of choice for stroke? MRI if pt seen w/i 24h of onset, CT w/o contrast after 24h
What is the purpose of ECG in a stroke patient? To determine if Afib or other arrhythmia is a cause of an embolus
Rx of ISCHEMIC stroke? 4 steps 1. Thrombolytic Tx w/i 3h (6h if given IV @ site of thrombus) 2. Antiplatelet Tx w/i 48h 3.+/- LMWH 4. Lipid lowering drugs w/i 3d
You shouldn't treat ______ in a stroke patient unless it is very extreme. HTN (only Rx >220/120). Risk of decreasing cerebral perfusion if you treat moderate HTN
Rx of HEMORRHAGIC stroke? 3 steps 1. Reversal of any anticoagulant + control BP and ICP 2. +/- surgical decompression 3. Antiplatelet drugs restarted 2w later
Never give _______tonic fluid in suspected brain injury. Hypo-tonic
Stroke of what artery causes: c/l lower extremity and trunk weakness? ACA
Stroke of what artery causes: c/l face and arm weakness, aphasia, inability to recall learned actions? MCA
Stroke of what artery causes: c/l visual loss? PCA
What are the 5 lacunar stroke syndromes? Which has cortical signs? Pure motor hemiparesis (Most common), pure sensory, ataxic hemiparesis, sensory + motor, dysarthria (clumsy hand). NONE of these have cortical signs like aphasia, neglect, visual loss.
What radiology is used to determine EXTENT of bleeding in a parenchymal bleed? CT w/o contrast
What radiology is used to determine SITE of bleeding in a parenchymal bleed? MRA or CTA
What Rx do you use in parenchymal bleed that you wouldn't use in stroke? Anticonvulsants
Berry aneurysm is associated with ____________ and ______________. Marfan's, ADPKD
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding into the space between the arachnoid and __________. Pia
First step in suspected SAH? CT w/o contrast. If clear, do LP for blood.
What systolic BP should you try to target in SAH? What drug would you use? <150 systolic (only treat if cognitive fxns are intact) use LABETALOL
Declining RBCs in serial LPs most likely implies ___________. traumatic LP, rather than SAH (which is usually the case with blood in LP)
MCC of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage vs Epidural Hematoma? SAH: berry aneurysm. Epidural hematoma: middle meningeal artery damage from TRAUMA
Epidural hematoma is blood between the dura and __________. Skull
[Subdural hematoma/Epidural hematoma] can cross the midline in the brain. Epidural hematoma
Which brain bleed has a "lucid interval"? Epidural hematoma
Which brain bleed has a "blown pupil" i.e. fixed and dilated? Epidural hematoma (or very large subdural hemm)
Subdural/Epidural hematoma = concave/convex on CT Epidural = convex (lens shaped). Subdural = concave (crescent moon).
Rx of epidural hematoma? drainage by radio-guidance or burr hole.
Subdural hematoma is collection of blood between the dura and ___________. Arachnoid
Subdural hematoma is caused by damage to which vessels? How are they damaged? Bridging veins, due to trauma
What is the onset/presentation of Subdural hematoma headache? Slowly progressing, like headache of a tumor
Mental status change seen in elderly pt with Hx of falls. You should suspect a possibility of __________ hematoma. Subdural. Do CT w/o contrast to confirm
Why would hydrocephalus occur following SAH? SAH causes fibrosis of arachnoid granulations (impaired CSF absorption)
3 W's of normal pressure hydrocephalus are? wacky (cognitive impairment), wet (incontinence), wobbly (gait disturbance; feet stuck to floor)
Created by: jsad



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards