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USMLE1 Psych 1


Axis I Clinical disorders
Axis II Personality disorders & mental retardation
Axis III Physical conditions
Axis IV Psychosocial/environmental problems
Axis V Global assessment of functioning
Fragile X X-linked mental retardation, affects boys mostly
Characteristics of Fragile X large testes (macroorchidism), characteristic but variable face with large ears, long face, high-arched palate
most common cause of mental retardation fetal alcohol syndrome
Most common genetic causes of mental retardation fragile X and down syndrome
How to treat autism behavioral techniques (shaping)
differential of schizophrenia 1. brief psychotic disorder (1 to 30 days) 2. schizophreniform (less than 6 mo) 3. schizophrenia (> 6 mo)
anhedonia can't experience pleasant emotion
clang associations illogical connections by ryhthm or puns
echolalia repeating in answer many of the same words as in question
echopraxia imitations of movements or gestures
perseveration responding to all questions the same way
Name 5 subtypes of schizophrenia DC-PUR 1. Disorganized 2. Catatonic 3. Paranoid 4. Undifferentiated 5. Residual
anaclictic depression depression in infant separated from caregiver --> FTT, withdrawn, unresponsive
asperger's mild autism, problems with social relationships and repetitive behavior; normal intelligence (unlike lower intelligence for autism)
rett disorder xlinked; only in girls because boys die in utero; age 4 - loss of development and MR; stereotyped handwriting
treatment for ADHD methylphenidate (Ritalin)
conduct disorder violating social norms, becomes antisocial personality disorder at greater than 18 yo
oppositional defiant disorder noncompliant, but not criminal
treatment for tourette's haloperidol
separation anxiety disorder fear of loss of attachment --> factitious physical complaints, avoidance of school
neurotransmitter changes in anxiety disorder increased NE; decreased GABA and serotonin; anxiety disorders happen more in the NE, and fewer people with the names of Gabby and Sera have anxiety disorders
Depression (change in NTs) decreased NE and serotonin; there's less depression in the NE, and also fewer people named Sera are depressed; NE has more anxiety, less depression
Alzheimer's (change in NTs) decreased Ach (A for Alz, A for Ach)
Huntington's disease (change in NTs) decreased GABA and Ach; people grab at you less and sneeze less in Huntington Beach
Schizophrenia (change in NTs) increased dopamine; schizo people are major dopes
Parkinson's disease (change in NTs) decreased dopamine (have to give them dopamine to treat)
In what disease would you have increased dopamine levels? In which would have decreased dopamine? Schizophrenia increased dopamine; parkinson's decreased dopamine
anosognosia not aware of one's illness
autotopagnosia can't locate your own body parts
depersonalization body seems unreal or dissociated
Order of loss when someone loses orientation time, place, person
anterograde amnesia no new memory
korsakoff's amnesia classic anterograde amnesia; confabulations - To fill in gaps in one's memory with fabrications that one believes to be facts; thiamine deficiency; alcoholics; bilateral destruction of mamillary bodies;
Delirium vs. Dementia Delirium is waxing and waning levels of consciousness and abnl EEG, while dementia is gradual decrease in cognition but no change in consciousness and normal EEG
sensorium sum of an organism's perception, the 'seat of sensation' where it experiences and interprets the environments within which it lives
drug class that frequently causes delirium anticholinergics
hallucinations perceptions with no external stimuli
illusions misinterpretations of external stimuli
delusion false beliefs not shared by culture; person still believes them even with evidence to the contrary
visual and auditory hallucinations are common in.... schizophrenia
olfactory hallucinations common in... aura of psychomotor epilepsy
tactile hallucinations cocaine abusers and alcoholics (cocaine bugs and ants crawling on skin)
formication the sensation of ants crawling on skin
delirium tremens withdrawal or abstinence from alcohol following habitual excessive drinking; sensation of ants crawling on skin
HypnaGOgic hallucination while GOing to bed
Hypnopompic hallucination upon waking from sleep
schizophrenia periods of psychosis and disturbed behavior with decline in function (> 6 mo)
schizoaffective disorder schizophrenia with mood disorder (depression or mania)
criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia Fulfill at least two criteria. HaNDDD: Hallucinations, Negative sx's (flat affect, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, lack of speech or thought), Delusions, Disorganized thought, Disorganized/catatonic behavior
Criteria for manic episode DIG FAST: 1. Distractability 2. Irresponsibility (seeks pleasure without thinking of consequences) 3. Grandiosity (inflated self esteem) 4. Flight of ideas (racing thoughts) 5. goal directed Activity and psychomotor Agitation 6. Sleep less 7. Talkativenes
Bipolar I bipolar + manic
Bipolar II bipolar + hypomanic
Definition of bipolar disorder one manic or one hypomanic episode defines the disorder
What is treatment for bipolar? lithium
cyclothymic disorder mild bipolar, lasts at least 2 years
Criteria for major depressive episode At least 5 for > 2wks SIG E CAPS: 1. Sleep disturbance 2. loss of Interest (anhedonia) 3. Guilt/worthlessness 4. Energy low 5. Concentration poor 6. Appetite/weight change 7. psychomotor retardation/agitation 8. Suicidal ideations 9. depressed mood
dysthymia mild depression, at least 2 years
Risk factors for suicide completion SAD PERSONS. Sex (male), Age (teen, elder), Depression, Previous attempt, EtOH/drugs, loss Rational thinking, Sickness (or >3meds), Organized plan, No spouse/child, Social support poor
Criteria for panic disorder PPANIICCCCSSS. Palpitations, Paresthesias, Abd stress, Nausea, Intense fear of dying or losing control, light-headedness, Chest pain, Chills, Choking, disConnectedness, Sweating, Shaking, Shortness of breath
Created by: christinapham



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