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Chapter 1 Intro to the Human Body

What is the study of how the body works? Physiology
What is the study of the consequences of the improper functioning of the body? Pathophysiology
What are the basic unit of life? Cells
What are specialized groups of cells? Tissue
What is a group of tissues that perform a specialized function called? An organ
What is an organ system? A group of organs
What is the study of the structure of the body? Anatomy
What are the 11 major organ systems? Integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and reproductive system
Skin, hair, and nails are a part of which body system? Integumentary System
What does the integumentary system do? It covers the body, regulates body temperature, and contains some of the structures necessary for sensation.
What forms the basic framework of the body? The skeletal system
What type of muscles within the muscular system attach to bone and are responsible for movement? Skeletal muscles
Which body system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs? Nervous system
Glands that secrete hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activities such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, and water balance are a part of which body system? Endocrine system
What two things make up the circulatory system? The heart and blood vessels
Which body system pumps and transports blood throughout the body? Circulatory system
Which body system plays an important role in fluid balance and in the body's defense against pathogens? Lymphatic system
Oxygen-rich air moves into the lungs and carbon-dioxide rich air moves out of the lungs by means of which body system? Respiratory system
The breakdown of substances in the body to be absorbed for later use happens in which body system? Digestive system
This body system consists of the kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste products from the body. Urinary system
What is refered to as the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment? Homeostasis
What are some homeostatic mechanisms? Temperature control, blood sugar control, water balance, blood pressure regulation
If the body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands directed forward it is said to be in what position? Anatomical position
If a body part is above another body part or closer to the head then it is said to be _________ to that part. Superior
When refering to position, the ankle is ________ to the knee. Inferior
Which term means towards to front? Anterior
What is another term for anterior? Ventral
What is something considered to be if it is posterior? Towards the back
Dorsal is another term for _________. Posterior
If something is towards the midline, it would be considered _______________. Medial
If something is said to be lateral, it would be _______________________. Away from the midline
If a structure is nearer the point of attachment, it is considered to be ___________. Proximal
If something is said to be distal, it is ___________________________________________. Farther away from the point of attachment
If someone were to fall down and scrape their knee, what type of wound would they have? Superficial, because it is near or on the surface of the body.
If a body part is considered to be deep, then where would it be located? Away from the surface of the body
The naval would be considered _________ because it is located in the center of the body. Central
Why would the feet and hands be considered peripheral? They are located away from the center of the body.
What are the 3 planes that can divide the body into different sections? Saggital plane, frontal plane, transverse plane
What divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions? Saggital plane
What divides the body into anterior and posterior portions? Frontal plane, also known as the Coronal plane
What divides the body horizontally? Transverse plane
What are viscera? Organs located within the cavaties of the body
Which body cavity is located towards the back or posterior side of the body? Dorsal cavity
What are the two divisions of the dorsal cavity? Cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Which body cavity is located within the skull and contains the brain? Cranial cavity
Which cavity surrounds the vertebrae and contains the spinal cord? Spinal cavity
Which body cavity is located on the anterior side of the body? Ventral cavity
What are the two divisions of the ventral cavity? Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
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