Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

NURS 106 Exam 3

Fluid & Electrolyte Class Notes

QuestionAnswer
Water fluid varies due to what? Gender, Age, and Body Mass
What are water/fluid functions? transport nutrients, electrolytes and O2 to cells, carries waste away from cells, regulates body temperature, lubricates joints/membranes and digests foods
What % of our body weight is composed of Intracellular fluid (ICF)? 40%
What % of our body weight is composed of Extracellular space (ECF)? 20%
What is ECF primarily composed of? NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions
Describe the ICF? A non-homogeneous solution of potassium, organic anions, and proteins controlled by cellular membranes and cell metabolism
What does the ECF include? interstitial fluid, intravascular (plasma), and transcellular fluid
What are electrolytes? substances whose molecules split into ions when placed into water.
Name prevalent cations in the body? Na+, K+, CA2+, Mg2+
Name prevalent anions HCO3-, Cl-, PO4-
How are concentrations of electrolytes expressed? as mEq/L
What is the most prevalent cation in the ICF? K+
What is the most prevalent anion in the ICF? HPO4-
What is the most prevalent cation in the ECF? Na+
What is the most prevalent anions in the ECF? Cl-
What is osmosis? Movement through a semi-permeable membrane from area of lessor solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
Does osmosis require energy? No
When does osmosis stop? when equilibrium is reached
What does osmolarity mean? concentration of a solute in a solution
What does colloid osmotic (oncontic) pressure mean? is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in blood plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
What happens when you introduce a hypotonic solution to a body? fluid moves into cells causing them to enlarge
What happens when you introduce a isotonic solution to the body? expands body's fluid volume without causing a fluid shift
What happens when you introduce a hypertonic solution into the body? fluid is pulled out of the cell causing them to shrink
What is diffusion? movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a permeable membrane requiring no energy
What is facilitated diffusion? Same movement of molecules but requires a carrier molecule to accelerate/facilitate diffusion
What does the diffusion rate depend on? molecule size, concentration, temp of a solution
What is filtration? movement of water and small particles from an area of high pressure to low pressure
What is osmotic pressure? the power of a solution to draw water
More concentration equates to what _____ osmotic pressure? high osmotic pressure
What are factors affecting filtration? size of pores in membrane varies, hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure Fluid pressure
osmotic pressure power of a solution to draw water (more concentrated, high osmotic pressure)
What is the hydrostatic pressure in the atrial capillary? 40 mm Hg
What is the hydrostatic pressure in the venous end? 10 mm Hg
What is the interstitial hydrostatic pressure in the tissue? 1 mm Hg
What is the tissues interstitial oncotic pressure? 1 mm Hg
In active transport where do molecules go? against there concentration gradient
What is required in active transport? ATP (energy)
Do ICF and ECF have the same concentration of Na+ and K+? Hell no they are very different!
What do osmoreceptors monitor? serum osmolarity
Define serum osmolarity? the total concentration of dissolved material in a serous fluid, regardless of there specific identities expressed in moles and also known as osmotic concentration.
Give examples of what osmoreceptors monitor? decreased fluids or intake of hypertonic fluids, or when hypovolemia occurs
What causes hypovolemia? internal or external bleeding, fluid losses or inadequate fluid intake.
Define hypovolemia A decreased blood volume that may be caused by internal or external bleeding, fluid losses, or inadequate fluid intake.
What does the hypothalamus do in response to there is increase osmolarity? the hypothalamus will stimulate the thirst response
When the hypothalamus stimulates the thirst response what is required in the person? that the individual is in an alert state
Who are at risk for dehydration? infants, cognitively impaired elderly or patients with neurological and or psychological impairments at risk for dehydration.
What happens to our sensitivity of thirst as we age? it decreases
How many liters of plasma do the kidneys filter on a daily basis? 180 L
How much do the sensible and insensible water losses through the skin produce? 500-600 ml daily
How much fluid output doe the lungs expire in a day? 400 ml
How much fluid output is moved in the GI tract and returned to the ECF daily? 3-6 L
What gland releases ADH? pituitary gland
What does ADH do? ADH works directly on the renal tubules to reabsorb water, returning water/fluid to systemic circulation
What releases aldosterone? the adrenal cortex
What does aldosterone do? it works directly on the renal tubules to reabsorb sodium and excrete K+ and H+ leading to water retention
What secrets renin? the Kidney
What does renin produce? angiostensin I which converts to angiotensin II
What does renin do? causes vasoconstriction and improved renal perfusion
Define diuresis elimination of urine
Define urinalysis analysis of a urine sample
what could occur if there is damage to the capillary walls such as bruising? localized edema
define edema the movement of abnormal amts of water from plasma to interstitial fluid
What occurs when there is an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary capillaries? pulmonary edema
What occurs when there is a decrease in blood colloid osmotic pressure? generalized edema
When is aldosterone secreted? in response to rising K+ or falling Na+ or in response to the activation of renin angiotensin system.
What does natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) do? They reduce thirst and block the release of ADH and aldosterone resulting in diuresis (fluid loss at the kidneys) causing a decrease in blood pressure and plasma volume
What effect does ADH cause? stimulates water conservation at the kidneys reducing urinary water losses and concentrating the urine and stimulate the thirst center promoting intake of fluids
What hormones make u pee and decreases fluids in the body? natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP)
What hormones causes water retention? aldosterone, Antidiuretic hormone, renin, angiotensin I/II
What illnesses causes fluid and or electrolyte imbalances? injury, congestive heart failure or burns
What is the normal serum Na+ range? 135 - 145 mEq/L
What is the normal serum K+ range? 3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
What is the normal atertial pH range? 7.34 - 7.45
What is the purpose of regulation of acid base balance? for optimal functioning of cells
What regulates the body's acid base balance? buffers, respiratory mechanisms, renal mechanisms
What therapeutic measures can worsen fluid and electrolyte imbalances? intravenous fluid administration, diuretic use, surgery
What nursing assessment should be done in regards to the possibility of a fluid and electrolyte imbalance? demographic data, past med history, current health concerns, food and fluid intake, fluid elimination, medication and life style
What physical assessments should be done in regards to the possibility of a fluid and electrolyte imbalance? vital signs, skin, mucous membranes, cardio system, resp system, neurological system, weights, intake and output
What laboratory tests should be done in regards to the possibility of a fluid and electrolyte imbalance? serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urine osmolality, complete blood count, urinalysis - pH, specific gravity
What can cause a fluid volume deficit? Gi losses (N,V,D), hemorrhage, burns, excessive perspiration, fever, decrease oral intake, use of diuretics, increased RR
what findings might indicate a fluid volume deficit? postural hypo-tension, tachycardia, dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, confusion, thirst, rapid weight loss, poor perfusion, weak pulse, lethargy, oliguria
define oliguria lil amts of piss
what causes fluid volume excess? CHF, renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, increased serum aldosterone and steroid levels, excessive sodium intake or administration
what findings may indicate fluid volume excess? rapid weight gain, edema (esp in dependent areas), hypertension, polyuria, neck vein distention, increased venous pressure, crackles in the lungs
what preventative measures/interventions could a nurse do in regards to fluid volume issues? modifying oral fluid intake, parenteral replacement (IV fluids, blood, blood products)
What was the purpose of typology of oral hydration conducted by mentes in 2006? to establish a 6 month prevalence of dehydration and describe common problems of nursing home residents
What interventions can be done for individuals who are at risk for dehydration that can drink educate about how much to drink, use graduated cups, provide preferred beverages, offer drinks frequently, give fluid during activities, establish teatimes/happy hours/beverage cart
What interventions can be done for individuals who are at risk for dehydration that are unable to drink due to dysphagic disorder? swallowing exercises, provide foods rich in fluids (smoothies), oral care, educate fam to help
What interventions can be done for individuals who are at risk for dehydration that are unable to drink due to there physical dependency? use sport cups with staws, have physical aids to assist with drinking
What interventions can be done for individuals who are at risk for dehydration that only sips drinks? give frequent small amounts of fluid at each contact, give fluid with activities, provide preferred beverages
What interventions can be done for individuals who are at risk for dehydration that fear incontinence educate about maintaining fluid intake, kegel exercises (urge inhibition), medication as a last resort
Created by: lydia.koo