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USMLE2 Medicine 11

Infectious Disease - Abx

QuestionAnswer
most common cause of osteomyelitis staph aureus (in sickle cell, it's salmonella)
most common cause of pyelonephritis E. coli
B-lactamase resistant PCN's (4) OX with two clocks (Di CLOX) around its neck holding a NAFta sign. oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin.
when should you use B-lactamase resistant PCN? oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin. When want Staph (not MRSA) coverage but G- is NOT suspected.
Which organisms do the B-lactamase resistant PCN's cover? All Staph, some Strep: S. PNA, S. viridans, GAS, GBS. VBAP
Tx MRSA with what abx? (2) Vanc or linezolid
what do PCN G/amox/ampicillin cover? Strep and G-
cephalexin (Keflex) - what is it and what does it cover? first gen cephalosporin, G+ coverage
if minor G+ infection and PCN allergic, what abx to use? clarithromycin/azithromycin or levofloxacin
if serious G+ infection and PCN allergic, what abx to use? vanc or linezolid
name 3 macrolides. what do they cover? ACE: azithro, clarithro, erythro. G+, but not serious staph infections.
what does levofloxacin cover? fluoroquinolone, covers Strep (inc S. PNA)
does ciprofloxacin cover Strep PNA? no
what is the only oral med against MRSA linezolid
what can you use on vanc-resistant enterococci (G+)? linezolid
piperacillin & ticaricillin. what are they and what do they cover? PCNs that cover G- (inc Enterobacteriaceae) and Pseudomonas
Bacteria in family Enterobacteriaceae, G- or G+? G- PEEKS: E.coli, Proteus, Enterobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella.
infection where you want to cover G-, Pseudomonas, and Staph Piperacillin + tazobactam (B-lactamase inhibitor) OR ticarcillin + clavulanate
CTX is what kind of abx? what does it cover? 3rd gen cephalosporin G- and S. PNA for PNA or meningitis
Ceftazidime is what kind of abx? 3rd gen cephalosporin
What do 3rd gen cephalosporins cover? G-
cephalosporins that cover Pseudomonas Ceftazidime (3rd gen ceph) and cefepime (4th gen)
Cefepime - what kind of abx, and what does it cover? 4th gen cephalosporin, covers G-, staph, and pseudomonas
Which abx cover Pseudomonas? piperacillin, ticarcillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin
What is the first line drug for empiric PNA tx? Levofloxacin (or cipro if you want Pseudomonas coverage) because fluoroquinolones also cover mycoplasma, chlamydia, and legionella
gentamicin is what kind of abx and what does it cover? aminoglycoside, covers G-
what abx to cover anaerobes? metronidazole, clindamycin less effective
first line tx for c.diff metronidazole
to tx anaerobes in the mouth clindamycin
Created by: christinapham