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Developmental Psych.

Developmental Psychology

Erikson differences from Freud he believed that social needs were the most important determinants.
Erikson's Theory each stage of life is characterized by attempts to resolve a particular social need.
Bowlby's Theory He claimed that children's need for a comforting, secure adult figure was evolutionarily advantageous since it helped prevent the child from entering into dangerous situations. Thus children have an innate need for a caregiver: they become distressed in t
Aids in memory retrival associations, context, and mood.
Retroactive interference the forgetting of old information when new information is learned. An example: Frank learned Spanish in high school. Since he took French 101 in college, however, he can’t remember very much of his Spanish.
Example of inductive reasoning drawing conclusions about all members of a group based on one
Syllogisms arguements made up of 2 propositions called premises
Compliance change in external behavior
Private acceptance change in attitude
Internalization strong social response based on desire to be right - hard to change
major functions of spinal cord acts as messenger to brain, filters sensory impulses
function of vestibular organ sense of balance, provides info about movements & body positions
Function of Thalamus relay center for sensory impulses
Function of autonomic system directs activity of smooth muscles & glands
Serial learning list learned in a sequence
Iconic stage, Bruner Theory knowledge of world is based on images that stand for perceptual events - usually visual images
Template matching theory internal representation of pattern is similar to stimulus pattern
Types of verbal learning serial, free-recall,paied-associate, serial-antcipation
Morpheme smallest unit of meaning "boy"
Kernel basic thought of the sentence
Variable-ratio schedule highest rate of results
Shaping Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced
Variable Interval the first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced. After the reinforcement, a new time period (shorter or longer) is set with the average equaling a specific number over a sum total of trials.
Technique of variable ratio a reinforcer is given after a set number of correct responses. After reinforcement the number of correct responses necessary for reinforcement changes.
Formal operations 11 - adult capable of thinking logically and abstractly. They can also reason theoretically.
Concrete operations able to take into account another person’s point of view and consider more than one perspective simultaneously, with their thought process being more logical, flexible, and organized than in early childhood. They can also represent transformations as well
limitations of concrete operations cannot yet contemplate or solve abstract problems, and that they are not yet able to consider all of the logically possible outcomes.
For piaget, beginning of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage
Nativist perception in an inate mechanisim
Empiricist perceptions are learned based on past experiences
Constructionist view reality constructed by senses
Reaction Formation (defense mechanisms) behaving in the opposite way of one's feelings
independent variable the thing that is MANIPULATED
Dependent variable the RESPONSE measured
Anchoring when you estimate a problem's probability of occurance and make adjustments to it when presented w/ new info - tends to be small adjustments
Preoperational stage can symbolize
Concrete operations conservation, reversability
Identity crisis in moratorium stage - trying to construct commitments
Foreclosed beliefs come from others without questioning
Identity diffusion no commitments and no effort to construct them - lack of identity and no attempt to get one
Superego Moral aspect
Ecological System children's thoughts & actions must be understood in the context of their settings
agonistic behaviors aggression & fighting
prosocial behaviors cooperation, sharing, praise
Second - order opperations (formal operations) performed on other operations rather than on reality itself
Representational intelligence preoperational stage
information processing emphasis on mental representation and process
Mesosystem relationship of individuals w/ several settings
Exosystem involvement with several settings which do not effect the child (parrent's workplace)
Macrosystem culture
Vygotsy interactive approach thinking and language have different origins but once combined influence each other
inner speech early speech precusor to thought
Metacognitive ability the ability to think about one's own cognitive abilities
Relativism reasoning seen as completely personal - there are no standards
Isolation of variables the study technique is varied, whereas 2 other varriables are held constant
Abselutisim niave belief in a truth and unquestioning authority
"We saw 2 sheepes on the farm" Morphemes - aware of gramatical ENDINGS
Child combines the word "two" with many other words Syntax- combining of words even in incorrect order
"What you doing?" Pragmatics - indirect request that is trying to reach a goal
Infant calls many items a "rona" Semantics - word meaning
Child says "bat" instead of "bad" Phoneme - t & d is a phonemic distinction and the 2 letters are critical to understanding meanings of words
Begins at age 7 / involves reversability Concrete operations
Identity crisis Erikson
Foreclosed directly influenced views by others
Moro reflex caused by startling stimuli
Babinski reflex stroking the bottom of foot
Rooting reflex when infant face is touched, they look for source of food
Decentration concentrating on 2 or more sepects of problem
Limited to observed realities Preoperational
Decenters to consider 2 dimensions Concrete operations
Able to think about the process of change Concrete Operations
Cognition happens first and language is a reflection of that Piaget
Language and thought develop in seperate, paralell straems Vygotsky
Language becomes a tool for thought Vygotsky
Syntatic stage where sentences are produced
Post-conventional Social Contract, Conscience
Conventional Law & order
Pre-conventional Obedience & punishment
Bruner Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given".
Vygotsky the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction.
Analog code Shepard & Metzler - storage of mental images based on a representation that closely resembles an object
Cognitive map what is where - location of information
From the general to the specific Deductive reasoning
Mental Set tendency to persist with old methods of problem solving even when they are not effective
Confirmation Bias tendency to confirm rather than refute even when there is strong evidence that hypothesis is wrong - ignoring info that conflicts with your theory
Object permanance ability to represent or think about object that you are not directly acting with (ootta sight, outa mind)
Irreversability, centration, egocentrisim the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. reoperational
Accomodation Changing scheme based on understanding
Assimilation Interpreting event based on our current scheme or thought structure
Adaptation Modifying scheme to fit new experience. Consists of assimilation + accomodation
Semantic coding based on meaning
Structural coding - selective attention based on visual codes - what information looks like
Phonemic coding stored on acoustic codes - what it sounds like
Pimacy effect Information presented first will likely be remembered
Recency effect info at the end of list likely to be remembered
Grammar includes syntax & phonetics (how sounds put together)
Transformational grammar theory Chomsky - when sentence heard, we don't retain surface structure, we transform it to deep structure (underlying meaning)
Strange situation - Ainsworth study of attachment
Biological approach to aggression Lorenz, role in the survival of humans
Instrumental aggression vs. hostile aggression being blocked from goals, percieved threat & malice
2 Views on agression Social leaning (modeling) & social cognition (perception of threat)
unconditioned stimulus stimulus thatinvokes a natural response
conditioned response learned response
stimulus generalization responds to a new stimulus as if it were the old one
stimulus discrimination failure to respond to a ne stimulus when generated in place of old one
higher order conditioning neutral stimulus acts as a conditioned stimulusby being paired with another stimulus that evokes a conditioned response
Imprinting - Lorenz infants learn that the first thing they see is their mother
individuals first encounter with rules anal stage
period where no developmental events occur / from 7 - puberty Latency stage
Contains the drive ID
Unconditioned positive regard Carl Rogers
Person operates on environment operational learning
stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus conditioned stimulus
Han notices a change in his behavior: He jumps and experiences fear whenever he hears a toilet flushing a conditioned stimulus
Stimulus discrimination occurs when something is different enough from the conditioned stimulus that it doesn't lead to the conditioned response
Stimulus generalization occurs when something similar to the conditioned stimulus leads to the conditioned response
Vicarious conditioning learning by watching the behavior of another and the consequences of that behavior
stimuli that we learn to like. secondary reinforcers
Classical conditioning the pairing of a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that causes a reflexive response
Conventional Level The concern with how others view us nt
the infant's behavior would be inconsistent or disturbed Disorganized
responses are learnedecause of consequences operant conditioning
always involves reflexive or responsive behavior classical conditioning
Created by: sloanie32
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