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General psyc.


Psychophysics The study of the relationship between physical properties of stimuli and people’s experience of the stimuli.
Abselute threshold The minimum amount of stimulation needed for a person to detect the stimulus 50 percent of the time.
Difference threshold The smallest difference in stimulation that is detectable 50 percent of the time. This threshold is also called the just noticeable difference, or jnd.
Signal detection theory the ability to detect a signal depends not only on the strength of the signal but also on the perceiver’s experience, motivation, expectation, and degree of alertness.
3 features of light color, brightness, and saturation.
The color or hue of light depends on wavelength, the distance between the peaks of its waves.
Photoreceptors cells that respond to light stimuli
rods highly sensitive to light and allow vision even in dim conditions.
Are there rods in the fovea? no, which is why vision becomes hazy in dim light.
Cones cone-shaped cells that can distinguish between different wavelengths of light, allowing people to see in color.
limitations of cones Cones don’t work well in dim light, however, which is why people have trouble distinguishing colors at night.
Are there cones in fovea? Yes, The fovea has only cones, but as the distance from the fovea increases, the number of cones decreases.
Rods & Cones connection Rods and cones connect via synapses to bipolar neurons, which then connect to other neurons called ganglion cells.
Optic Nerve A bundle of ganglion cell axons that originate in the retina.
Thalamus The part of the brain through which almost all sensory information goes on its way to the cerebrum.
opponent process theory the visual system has receptors responding in opposite ways to wavelengths associated with three pairs of colors.
How does the trichromatic theory explain colorblindness? Most color-blind people are dichromats, which means they are sensitive to only two of the three wavelengths of light. Dichromats are usually insensitive either to red or green, but sometimes they cannot see blue.
What does opponent process theory explian? ccounts for complementary or negative afterimages. Afterimages are colors perceived after other, complementary colors are removed.
Gestalt and form perception explored how people organize visual information into patterns and forms. Gestalt psychologists noted that the perceived whole is sometimes more than the sum of its parts. A
Proximity When objects lie close together, people tend to perceive the objects as a group.
Closure People tend to interpret familiar, incomplete forms as complete by filling in gaps.
Continuity When people see interrupted lines and patterns, they tend to perceive them as being continuous by filling in gaps.
Simplicity eople tend to perceive forms as simple, symmetrical figures rather than as irregular ones.
Linear perspective Parallel lines that converge appear far away. The more the lines converge, the greater the perceived distance.
Light & Shadow Patterns of light and shadow make objects appear three-dimensional, even though images of objects on the retina are two-dimensional.
Perceptual constancy the ability to recognize that an object remains the same even when it produces different images on the retina.
Size constancy Objects appear to be the same size even though their images get larger or smaller as their distance decreases or increases. Size constancy depends to some extent on familiarity with the object.
Perceptual set readiness to see objects in a particular way based on expectations, experiences, emotions, and assumptions.
Loudness depends on the amplitude, or height, of sound waves. The greater the amplitude, the louder the sound perceived.
Hearing place theory sound waves of different frequencies trigger receptors at different places on the basilar membrane.
Frequency theory explains how people discriminate low-pitched sounds that have a frequency below 1000 Hz.
Frequency theory workings sound waves of different frequencies make the whole basilar membrane vibrate at different rates and therefore cause neural impulses to be sent at different rates.
Gate-control theory pain signals traveling from the body to the brain must go through a gate in the spinal cord.
Accomodation process by which the lens of the eye adjusts in shape to focus light from objects that are near or far away.
What is a cue requiring the use of both eyes that helps to estimate the distance of a nearby object Retinal disparity
What does perceptual constancy enable people to recognize? That a bus approaching on the street isn’t getting bigger
What theory explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds with a frequency greater than 5000 Hz? Place theory
Created by: sloanie32