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What is the cell cycle? An ordered set of events, culminating in cell growth and division into 2 daughter cells.
What is cancer? A disease where regulation of the cell cycle and cell growth is not normal and behavior is lost.
Cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) Major control switches for the cell cycle, causing the cell to move from G1 to S or G2 to M.
Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) Includes the Cdk and cyclins that triggers progression through the cell cycle.
A protein that functions to block the cell cycle if the DNA is damaged is this. If the damage is severe this protein can cause apoptosis (cell death). p53
This protein binds to the cyclin and cdk blocking entry into S phase. p27
This term is nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces 2 identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis
What is technically not part of mitosis? Interphase
In this phase, the cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its prepare for mitosis. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus, nucleolus may be visible. Cell may contain centrioles. Interphase
In this phase, chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible in the light microscope as chromosomes. Nucleolus disappears, centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell and fibers extend from the centromeres. Prophase
In this phase, the nuclear membrane dissolves. Proteins attach to centromeres creating kinetochores. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores and chromosomes begin moving. Prometaphase
Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. This organization helps to ensure that in the next phase, chromosomes are separated. Metaphase
Anaphase The paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes from around the daughter nuclei. Chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope.
Cytokinesis in animal cells Cytogeneses results when a fiber ring composed of a protein actin around the center of the cell contracts, pinching the cell into 2 daughter cells, with 1 nucleus.
What is the order of mitosis after interphase? Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Why can't cells grow too large or too small? Because of surface-area-to-volume ratio, the cell will not be able to function properly.
What are the phases of the cell cycle? G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)
Centromere Where the 2 identical copies of the chromosome are connected.
___% of the cell's life is spent in interphase. 90
Metacentric When the centromere is in the center of the chromosome.
Telocentric When the centromere is on the edge of the chromosome.
Acrocentric When the centromere is between the middle and the edge of the chromosome.
Tubulin A protein that makes up microtubules.
Kinetochore Where the spindle fibers attach to the centromere of the chromosome.
What causes chromatids to separate? Motor molecules
Plant cells have different mechanism for division since they have ___. The ___ first makes vesicles that migrate to the equator of the cell via ___ derived from the ___. The vesicles will fuse to produce new ___. Cell walls, Golgi apparatus, microtubules, spindle, plasma membrane
Binary fission The usual method of prokaryote cell division.
Prokaryotic organisms reproduce ___. Asexually
What problem does binary fission pose? Because this type of reproduction produces identical cells, they are susceptible to the same types of antibiotics.
Diploid cells Cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes each set derived from a parent.
Somatic cells Diploid cells that make up the body of the organism. A select number of diploid cells will be set aside to undergo meiosis.
Sex cells or gametes Haploid cells that result from meiosis.
Somatic cells Cells that make up the body of an organism.
T or F. Somatic cells cannot take part in sexual reproduction. True
How do we divide our chromosome number of half? Meiotic division produces haploid cells from diploid cells.
How would chromosomes be sorted? Diploid cells have 23 chromosome pairs which are sorted and split during meiosis. The resulting cells have 1 chromosome from each pair.
How many phases does meiosis have? 2
The second division involves separating ___ of a replicated chromosome in 2 different cells. Sister chromatids
Chiasmata Areas where crossing over between the 2 homologous chromosomes occur.
Prophase I After homologous chromosomes synapse, chiasmata form between regions of the synapsed chromosomes.
Metaphase I Homologous pairs line up at the equator of the cell. This alignment organizes the homologues so that they will be divided evenly.
Anaphase I Homologues separate and migrate to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase I The cell divides to form 2 cells, each with 1 chromosome from a homologous pair. The chromosomes will decondense.
Prophase II The chromosomes reconvenes and spindle fibers reform.
Metaphase II Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres, the chromosomes align at the equator of the cell.
Anaphase II Chromatids of each chromosome break apart and migrate to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase II The cells eventually divide and the nuclei form.
Independent assortment When homologous chromosomes are sorted into daughter cells independently of one another.
Spermatogenesis A process that involves meiosis to form haploid sperm cells.
Where does spermatogenesis take place? In the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
Sertoli cells Nutriet cell that nourish developing sperm cells.
Spermatogonia give rise to what? Primary spermatocytes
Primary spermatocytes undergo the first meiotic division to form what? Secondary spermatocytes
Secondary spermatocytes undergo the second division of meiosis to form what? Spermatids
Spermatids undergo further development to form what? Sperms
Acrosome Hold special enzymes that are able to help penetrate the egg.
Oogenesis A process that involves meiosis to form a haploid egg cell and 3 haploid polar bodies.
Where does oogenesis take place? Ovary
The polar bodies degenerate while the large amount of cytoplasm in the ___ furnishes nutrients to the developing ___. Ovum, zygote
Oogonium develops into a ___. Primary oocyte
The primary oocyte undergoes ___ to form one ___ and one haploid cell called the ___. Meiosis I, polar body, secondary oocyte
When does the secondary oocyte undergo secondary division of meiosis? When it has been fertilized
The primary oocyte is enclosed by a structure called ___. Follicle
After the secondary oocyte ruptures from the follicle, the follicle tissue becomes the ___. Corpus luteum
Cytokinesis in plant cells The rigid wall requires that a cell plate be synthesized between the 2 daughter cells.
During binary fission, the single DNA molecule replicate and both copies attach to the cell ___. Membrane
During binary fission, the cell membrane extends between the 2 DNA molecules. Once the ___ doubles its original size, the cell membrane begins to pinch ___. Bacterium, inward
A cell wall forms between 2 DNA molecules, the dividing the original cell into 2 ___ cells. Daughter
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