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Pediatric Alteration

Peristalsis coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of the smooth muscle of the GI tract, greater in infants than in the older child.
Pyloromyotomy surgical procedure which is the treatment of choice in which the circular muscle fibers are released, opening the passage from the stomach into the duodenum
VACTERL V- Vertebral defect A- Anorectal malformation C- Cardiac defects T- Tracheoesophageal fistula E- Esophageal atresia R- Renal anomalies L- Limb defects
Polyhydramnios excessive amount of amniotic fluid and hx of this means high gastrointestinal obstruction.
Anastonosis surgical connection of two tubular structures of the two ends of the esophagus in tx of tracheoesophageal fistula
enterocolitis inflammation of the small intestine and colon
insufflation blowing into a cavity, such as an air enama which is believed to be safer than bowl perforation
fecalith fecal matter that becomes petrified and stone'like, calculi, tumors, parasites, and foreign bodies
Guarding involuntary contraction of abdominal muscles caused by fear of impending pain
Rebound tenderness describes a sensation of sever pain that occurs after deep pressure is applied and released and is indicative of peritonitis
Crystalluria crystals in the urine which is a side effect from sulfasalazine (azulfidine
melana black or tarry stool indicating presence of blood
hematemesis vomiting of blood
hydrolyze to cause a substance to break down into its component parts by adding water
pneumatosis intestinalis gas or air in the bowel wall, causing the bowel to become edematous and distended
gastric residulas feeding retained in stomach following tube feeding
pneumoperitoneum free air in the peritoneal cavity or air in the portal circulation indicate sever disease and performation of the bowel
steatorrhea adbominal distention and chronic diarrhea appear with large amounts of unabsorbed fats being extreted in the stools
decontamination decreasing absorption of the ingested poison from the GI tract
retractions inward motion of the muscles of the chest wall during inspiration
suppurative pus forming around tissues due to untreated streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis infections
effusion accululation of fluid such as in the middle ear or pleural cavity
Tympanostomy surgical incision in the tympanic membrane for draining fluid
stridor high-pitched sound producted by an obstruction of the trachea or larynx that can be heard during inspiration of expiration heard during croup
hypoxia decreased oxygen to body tissue
wheezing high-pitched musical sound produced by air flow through a narrowed airway
nebulizer produces spray or mist with the forcing of air through a liquid
nasal flaring the widening of nostrils furing inspiration, indications air hunger
atelectasis collapseof lung tissue
crackles an adventitious lung sounds caused when air passes over airway secretions or collapsed airways are suddenly opened
ventilation-perfusion raio ratio of alveolar ventilation to capillary perfusion
dyspnea SOB or difficulty in breathing
orthopnea increase in difficulty breathing when lying flat
bronchiectasis lung condition characterized by irrecersible dilation and destruction of the broncial walls
cor pulmonale right-sided heart failure
hemoptysis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract
hypercapnia excess of carbon dioxide in the blood
fibrosis the repair and replacement of injured or infected tissue with scar tissue
empyema accumulation of infected fluid in a body cavity
extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) device that oxygenates the blood outside the body
myocardium the cardiac muscle; middle layer of the heart
hypercyanotic spells extreme cyanosis that results in a deep blue or purple color of the entire body
sycope fainting
palpitations sensation of abnormal heart beats
dysmorphic abnormal or unusual
hepatomegaly liver enlargement
pulsus paradoxus excessive variations in systolic pressure with respiration
tamponade accumulation of fluid around heart that restricts filling of heart
pericardial effusion collection of fluid in pericardial sac that can lead to tamponade
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscles resulting in poor pump function
endocarditis infection of the inner lining of the heart
tachyarrhythmias abnormally fast heart rates
bradyarrhythmias abnormally slow heart rates
hypertrophy becomes abnormally thick
intropes medications that are directed at improving contractility
DiGeorge syndrome congenital syndrome associated with hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus and parathyroid gland
Erythrocytosis an adaptive mechanism in which red cell production is increased in an attempt to compensate for decreased oxygen delivery, leading to an increase in hematocrit
valvuloplasty involves using a balloon-tipped plasty catheter to dilate a cardiac valve (the pulmonary)
valvotomy incision into a cardiac valve to correct a defect if a valvuloplasty cannot be done.
hyperpnea deep, rapid respirations
palliative procedure releives or reduces the symptoms or a cardiac defect but does not correct the defect
retrograde bachward
atrial septostomy balloon-tipped catheter is through the PFO to the left atrium
Glenn shunt bicaval anastomosis, procedure the superior vena cava is disconnected from the RA and sutured directly to the RPA
arrythmias abnormal heart rhythm
pharyngitis sore throat
polyarthritis large joints with mild or severe pain that the child is unable to bear weight.
valvulitis inflammation of the heart valves
carditis inflammation of the heart
vasculitis inflammation of the blood vessels
ectasia larger than normal for age
pancarditis inflammation of entire heart
erythematous diffuse redness
lymphadenopathy unilateral cervical swollen lymph nodes
bacteremia bacteria in the blood
endocardium serous inner membrane of the heart
vegetations abnormal growths, contributing to inflammation
synchronized cardioversion uses the defibrillator to produce an electrical shock to convert the arrhythmia to sinus rhythm. child must be NPO 3-6 hours prior to treatment, and MUST BE well sedated as this is VERY painful.
maldistribution abnormal distribution (maldistributive shock is maldistribution of blood flow secondary to vasomotor instability or capilarry leak.
cardomegaly heart is larger than normal
RBCs fcn is to supply the tissues of the body with oxygen
hemoglobin oxygen-carrying protein
WBC fcn is to defend against microorganisms and remove debris
platelets disk-shaped cytoplasnic fragments, not considered cells
anemia not a disease, a term used to describe decrease in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood caused by an underlying disease or injury
erythropoiesis production of RBCs
hemolysis destruction of RBCs
iron deficiency anemia most common hematology disorder of infancy and childhood
ferritin dietary iron in the small intestine and either passed into the bloodstream or stored in the intestinal epithelial cells as this.
transferrin iron in the bloodstream binds to the iron-transport molecule called this
sickle-cell anemia one of the three disorders that fall under sickle cell disease, presence of Hb S (sickle hemoglobin)
vaso-occlusive crisis aggregation of sickled cells within a vessel, causing obstruction
hand-foot syndrome tender, warm, and swolled hands, feet, or both)typically the first manifestation of SCA in infants
sequestration crisis excessive pooling of blood in the liver and spleen. the decreased blood volume results in shock and this type can cause fatal cardiovascular collapse, because the spleen is capable of holding as much as 1/5 of the body's blood volume
aplastic crisis occurs when there is a decrease in erythropoiesis. it is precipitated by an infection with human parovirus B19. it is self-limited byt highly contagious and warrants isolation from persons vulnerable to infection
enuresis urinary incontinence
streptococcus pneumoniae infection single most common cause of death in children with SCA due to the fact that the spleen is damaged and cannot destroy bacteria in the blood, leaving the child immunocompromised
beta-thalassemia major aka Cooley's anemia. assoc. with life-threatening form of anemia requiring blood transfusions and ongoing medical care.
erythropoietin hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more RBCs.
hyperplasia abnormal proliferation
hemosiderosis iron overload due to repeated transfusions; excess iron is stored as hemosiderin in the cells of many organs and tissues, part. in the liver and heart. iron in the tissues and organs is toxic, and can eventually lead to organ failure and death.
chelating agent drug used to either prevent or reverse the toxic effects of a heavy metal or to accelerate the elimination of the metal from the body. Desferal (chelating agent) binds to the iron and aids in removing it from the tissues. adin. 5-7 times a week for 12 hrs
aplastic anemia injury toor abnormal expression of the stem cells in the bone marrow results in the production of inadequeate numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
fanconi's anemia FA; rare autosomal recessive disorder that develops early in life and is accompained by multiple congenital abnorm.
pancytopenia all three types of blood cells are either decreased or absent
hemostasis control of bleeding
fibrin protein that is formed through a series of reactions called the coagulation cascade (involves many blood clotting factors initiated by damage to tissues or vessel walls)
hemophilia A classic, caused by a deficiency of factor VIII
hemophilia B Christmas disease, caused by a deficiency in factor XI
hemophilia C least common, facot XI deficiency. all types inpair the body's ability to control bleeding and can result in fatal hemorrhage!!
hemarthrosis bleeding into the joints
hematoma pockets of blood under the skin caused by excessive bleeding following trauma
epistaxis nose bleed
Von willebrand's disease most common congenital disorder or homeostasis
von willebrand's factor (vWF) protein that facilitates adhesion btw platelets and injured vessels, in the genetic disorder they are either deficient or defective.
ecchymoses bruises
menorrhagia abnormally long and heavy menstrual bleeding
Thrombocytopenia decrease in the platelet count below 150,000mm3
purpuras areas of blood underneath the skin or mucous membranes
immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) autoimmune disorder char. by low platelet counts and exagerrated bleeding
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) coagulation disorder in which the stimulus for coagulation overwhelms the control mechanisms that normally confine coagulation to the area of bleeding
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) antiretroviral drugs, such as zidovudine and epivir, used to treat HIV or AIDS; admin. during pregnancy and delivery or during the neonatal period
angioedema swelling of the skin, subc, or submucosal tissues
macolopapular rashes common subc reaction to cutaneous reactions o an antigen; symmetric, char. by macules or papules
contact dermatitis delayed type hypersensitivity and occurs with meds applied directly to the skin
anaphlylaxis acute, life-threatehing reaction with diffuse erythema, uticaria, angioedema, pruritis, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, hyperperistalsis, hypotension, or cardiac dysrhythmias
erythema multiforme may be caused by drugs in 10-20% of cases, may include target lesions. erythematous, maculopapular, vesicular, erticarial rash
Stevens; Johnson syndrome most sever form of erythema multiforme. includes mucosal and conjunctival lesions, epidermal loss of 10% or less of the BSA
toxic epidermal necrolysis acute illness of fever, epidermal loss of more than 30% or hte BSA
tropic hormones they cause target tissues or organs to produce hormones
glycogenolysis glucagon increases blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose
dyshormonogenesis inborn error of thyroid hormone sythesis
virilize develop sexual char. of a male
glyconeogenesis fixation of glycogen from noncarbohydrate sources
proteolysis protein breakdown
lipolysis fat breakdown
polyphagia excessive hunger
Kussmaul respirations deep, slow, labored breathing
lipoatrophy indentation or atrophy of subc fat
liprhypertrophy lumbiness or hypertrophy of subc fat
Chvostek's sign elicited by tapping the facial nerve which produces a facial muscle spasm
trousseau's sign carpopedal spasm that results from oxygen deficiency
glomerular filtration rate reaches adult level by 2 years old. so ability to concentrate urine in not well developed in newborn for several months and esp. in premature infants
pyuria white blood cells in the urine show UTI, along with bacteriuria
hydronephrosis abnormal swelling in the kidney
cystogram radiograph of bladder, urethra, and ureters
voiding cystourethrogram radiograph of bladder, ureters, and urethra while voiding
trigone small triangular area at the base of the bladder where ureters normally join the bladder
dialysis treatment that acts as a filtration system outside the body to rid the body of waste products
processus vaginalis fold of peritoneum that precedes the testicle as it descends through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
incarceration strangulation of a portion of the bowel leading to circulation impairment and tissue necrosis
hypoalbuminemia low levels of albumin in the bloOD
ANURIC WITHOUT urine output
hemodialysis hemofiltration system that occurs outside the body. which can no longer be filtered effectively through the kidneys
peritoneal dialysis requires the placement of a catheter into the peritoneal cavity for the purposes of removing excess fluis, solutes, nitrogenous wastes
hemofiltration continuous form of dialysis.
uremia condition where toxic nitrogenous waste products, blood urea, and creatinine buildup in the system
jgraft versus host disease occurs when the transplanted organ fights against the host, creating an exaggerated immune responce to rid the body of the foreign organ. can be life-threatening
bifid spilt into two
diaphysis shaft of the long bone
epiphysis proximal and distal ends of the long bone
metaphysis section of the long bone in which the diaphysis and epiphysis converge, responsible for growth until the chil'd adult height is obtained
osteoblastic activity bone formation
osteoclastic activity resorption of the old bony tissue by osteoclasts
epiphyseal growth plate thin layer of cartilage located between the metaphysis and the epiphysis at the end of the long bone, vascular area of the active cell division
sprain stretching or tearing of a ligament from injury to a joint
strain stretching or tearing of either a muscle or tendon form overuse, overstretching, or misuse
contusion occurs when there is damage to soft tissue, subc structures, small vessels, and muscles, yet the integrity of the skin is not disrupted.. most common in sports activities.
RICE treatment used for sprains and strains. rest- stay off it for several hours to several days depending on severity.. ice- 30 min on, 15 mins off. compression- elastic wrap and elevation!- with or above the level of the heart... immediately after the injury.
contusion treatment during first 24-48 hours, apply ice to the bruise at least 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes, elevate the affected extremity higher than the heart, wrap the contused area with an elastic or Ace bandage.
pain medications used for sprain strain to contusion Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or Ibuprofen (Advil). mild sprains also meed ace bandage for support. moverate and severe (w/ torn ligaments) may require casting or bracing for several weeks complete ligament tearing may require surgery stretch ad strengthen!
dislocation displacemetn of two bone ends or of a bone from its articulation with a joint
subluxation incomplete or partial dislocation of the articular surfaces of a joint
nuremaid's elbow dislocation of the elbow, subluxation of the radial head (typically occurs in children <5years old)
callus tissue mass that forms at the fracture site in order to connect the two ends of the fracture
crepitus grating sound heard on movements of the end of a broken bone
closed reduction 1 of tx method4fractures-algmnt of bones by manual manip. or traction. majority of fractures can be handled this way.immobilization after reduction's necessary 2 reduce pain,2 prevent rotation at fracture site,2 maintain position by preventing displacmnt
open reduction surgical alignment of the bone using wires, pins, bone screws, plates. immobilization after reduction is necessary to reduce pain, to prevent rotation at the fracture site, to maintain the position by preventing displacement or angulation until bony union
begin at page 1146 "casting"
Created by: Sarahmarie001
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