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Leise Section 7

Interest Groups

QuestionAnswer
Astroturf Lobbying An English lanuguage term refering to political, advertising, or public relations campaigns that are formally planned by organization, but designed to mask its orgins to create the impression of being spontaneous, popular "grassroots" behavior.
Communication and Workers of America vs. Beck 1998 The court ruled that workers covered by the National Labor Relations Act can withold froced dues from the Union for everything but the documented cost of collective bargaining.
Direct Mail A mailing from an interest group focused at a speacialized audience whose purpose is both to raise money and mobilize supporters.
Elitist Theory Theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper class-elite will rule, refardless of the formal niceties of government organizations.
Enviornmental Movement Result of the emergence of conservation as a major issue.
Ethics in Government Act (1978) The two most significant provisions of the law require public officials and higher-ranking civil servants to make public financial disclosures and prohibit certain activities by federal employees after their government employment ends. Also limits gifts.
Feminist Movement Several different movements in the 1890s, 1920s, and 1960s. Movement for greater rights and privileges for women.
Foundations An organization established by endowment with provision for future maintenence upon prinicples.
Free Rider Problem The idea that interest groups can suffer by members who join for the material benefits not the advocacy of the group.
Grassroots Lobbying Ordinary people organizing into groups in order to further an idea, action, or candidate.
Hyperpluralist Theory Says that too many groups are trying to influence the political process, resulting in political chaos and contradiction among government policies.
Ideological Interest Group An organization that attracts members by appealing to their interests on a coherent set of controversial principles.
Interest Group An organization that seeks to influence public policy.
Iron Triangles A term used by political scientists use to describe the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, bureacracy (executive or government agencies), and interest groups.
K Street A major thoroughfare in Washington D.C. known for the numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups that exercise influence from its location.
Lobby A group that attempts to influence legislation through direct contact with members of the legislative or executive branches.
Lobbyist A person attempting to influence government policy on behalf of a lobby.
Lobbyist Disclosure Act (1995) Replaced an inadequate and unenforceable 1946 statute, made accessible to the public, the media, and Congress, information on who lobbies for whom, what issues are involved, and how much is being paid/recieved by the lobbist in the process.
Material Incentives Something tangible, such as money or services, which attracts people to join mass-membership organizations.
Pluralist Theory A description of the American political system, once used by scholars, contending that the policy-making process encompasses the effective competition of interest grouups and that there are many different view points trying to gain power.
Political Cue A signal, frequently provided by interest groups, that tells politicians what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue fits into his/her own set of political beliefs.
Public-Interest Lobby An interest group whose pricipal purpose is to benefit nonmembers.
Purposive Incentives An incentive to join a mass-membership organization based on the appeal of the group's goal.
Ralph Nader Green Party's candidate in 2000. Left-wing politics. Was the first time a thrid party had done really well in a national election.
Revolving Door Politicians/civil servants simultaneously being employed in the private sector. Political analysts claim a symbiotic relationship can develop between the private sector and sections of government based on the granting of reciprocated privileges.
Social Movement A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order.
Solidary Incentives An inducement to join a mass-membership organization based on the sense of pleasure, status, or companionship derived from membership.
Think Tanks An organization, institute, corporation, group, or individual that conducts research and engages in advocacy areas such as social policy, political strategy, economy, science, or technology issues, industrial or buisness policies, or military advice.
Trade Association Economic interest groups that represent an entire industry (ex. all carpentry)
Union Movement 1930s. People wanted to join and use unions to influence policy.
Insider Strategy A close link between interst groups and politicians on the "inside". Many times associated with revolving door.
Created by: jmarient