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anoxia condition of being without oxygen
respiratory insufficiency inability of the body to meet its oxygen needs and remove excess amounts of carbon dioxide
hypoxemia decreased amount of oxygen in the blood stream
hypercapnia increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
inspiration movement of air into the lungs
expiration movement of air out of the lungs
retractions muscles move inward upon inspiration
expectorate cough up and spit out
nebulizer a device that dispenses liquid in a fine spray
cannula tube for insertion into a cavity
humidifier device supplying moisture
tenacious adhesive; sticky
endotracheal within the trachea
tracheostomy opening into the trachea
atelectasis collapsed area of lung
yawn deep, long inspiration unusually due to mental or physical fatigue
sigh prolonged inspiration followed by long expiration
obturator curved guide that facilitates placement of the tube in the trachea when it is inserted.
asthma potentially reversible obstructive airway disorder: airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Begins when "triggers" activate the inflammatory process.
med treatment for asthma bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. If you are giving O2, start at the lowest (ie 2 liters) also get humidifiers
asthma Fyi respiratory arrest may be imminent when absence of wheezing occurs. This means diminished ventilation effort.
status asthmaticus one long asthma attack. It can lead to right sided heart failure; pneumathorax, hypoxemia, acidosis and cardiac arrest.
chronic bronchitis BRONCHIAL INFLAMMATION. Increased production of mucus and chronic cough that persist for at least 3 months of the year for 2 consecutive yrs and by impaired ciliary action.
centrilobular emphysema enlarged and broken down bronchioles and intact alveoli.
when assessing for major sources of infection focus on the status of the respiratory secretions
for chronic bronchitis patients you will see in RBC, hemoglobin level to carry more O2 for tissues
pts with bronchitis if they are smoking, you might see them coughing and spitting mucus for 4 months up to a year
pts with respiratory disorders nutritional status might be imbalanced because of escessive respiratory effort
BRONCHIECTASIS abnormal dilation/distortion of bronchi and bronchioles; usually confined to one lung lobe or segment. SIGNS are coughing, production of large amounts of purulent sputum
CYSTIC FIBROSIS stools become bulky and foul smelling; lose more salt in sweat than normal. AVOID HEAT, for electrolyte imbalance due to excessive sweating
CYSTIC FIBROSIS - treatment panreatic enzyme replacement, aerosol and nebulizer treatments to reduce mucus viscosity
CYSTIC FIBROSIS - nursing care clear airway; administer prescribed meds, maintain hydration and perform chest physiotherapy
TB - positive positive 8mm. Check 2 days after
TUBERCULOSIS an infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS, an acid-fast aerobic bacterium. It is spread by droplets from infected people during coughing, laughing, sneezing and singing
TUBERCULOSIS - med treatment common preventive treatment is ISONIAZID therapy for 9 to 12 months. They can be as along as 2 yrs.
TUBERCULOSIS - med treatment individuals with inactive tuberculosis may be treated with INH alone, INH with rifamprin or rifamprin with pyrazinamide
HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS allergic inflammatory response of the alveoli to inhaled organic particles
CPAP machine maintains continous pressure in airway to avoid apnea
hemo- blood
pneum- air or respiration
-thorax chest
thoracic chest
effusion escape of fluid into a part, such as a pleural cavity
contusion bruise
pneumonectomy removal of a lung
thoracotomy surgical incision of a thorax
pleural cavity cavity surrounding the lungs and heart
hemothorax blood trapped in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax air trapped in the pleural cavity; CAUSES SHORTNESS OF BREATH
pneumohemothorax gas and air trapped in the pleural cavity
hypercapnia high blood carbon dioxide
hypoxemia low blood oxygen
2 types of injuries most commonly associated with chest trauma blunt and penetrating
ARDS (ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME) a condition found in pt's normal but who had some severe in fection, trauma or systemic illness. WORSENING CONDITION: RETRACTIONS. can be fatal. It is life threatening and treated in ICU.
S/S of respiratory distress chest pain, increased pulse, cyanosis
ARDS fyi when the fluid enters alveoli, it will cause pulmonary edema. The body will slow down the production of surfactant, which results in atelectasis.
symptoms of STERNAL RETRACTION rapid, shallow and labored respirations with sternal retractions, cyanosis, anxiety, restlessness, confusion, agitation, drowsiness. There may or may not be a cough
symptoms of STERNAL RETRACTION along with increased resp rate and abnormal breath sounds, other signs and symptoms of ARDS is worsening dyspnea with retractions
PARADOXICAL MOVEMENT part of rib cage moves inward with inspiration and outward with expiration.
THORACIC TRAUMA are second only to brain and spinal cord injuries as the leading cause of death. results in changes in the pressures on the inside and outside of the body.
when pt transferred with penetrating chest wound stabilize object and dressing. Control bleeding and monitor vital signs
penetrating injuries - most common cause gunshot and stab wounds
2 major categories of thoracic trauma penetrating injuries and blunt or nonpenetrating injuries
when assessing your pt with a penetrating chest wound you will hear a SUCKING sound; this is caused by air entering the chest cavity via the wound during inspiration. USE AN OCCLUSIVE DRESSING OF VASELINE GAUZE TAPED ON 3 SIDES
stabbing accidents NOT blunt injury
non penetrating rib, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion
blunt trauma are often devastating because of major organ trauma
1st to assess on a pt with resp trauma ABC's - airway, breathing and circulation.
PNEUMOTHORAX - TREATMENT chest tube, analgesics and diuretics
tension pneumothorax w/ every inspiration, air enters the pleural space via a hole or tear in the lung or some part of lung. When there is no way for this air to escape the pleural space, the pressure in the pleural space continually rises.
mediastinal shift the accumulating pressure causes the lung to collapse which causes this. When everything inside (heart, trachea, etc) shifts over the opposite side, away from affected side w/c can interfere w blood flow
OPEN pneumothorax when air is not trapped in the pleural cavity; chest wound is open & allows air to pass in& out freely w each breath.
MEDIASTINAL FLUTTER W/ OPEN PNEUMOTHORAXThe lung on the affected side may still collapse and the heart, tracha, esophagus & blood vessels may shift back & forth toward unaffected side.
PNEUMOTHORAX - NURSING CARE CHECK THEIR ABG for low oxygen (hypoxemia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia)
HEMOTHORAX may result from torn lung disease, lung malignancy, pulmonay embolism.
1st and 2nd ribs tend to resist fracture better than the lower ribs
4th to 9th ribs they are the least protected by chest muscles.
reason why kids are less likely to fracture their ribs than adults their bones are softer, more resilient, more flexible.
FLAIL CHEST ribs broken in multiple locations. When 2 adjacent ribs on the same side of the chest are each broken in multiple location. The movement with respiration is usually opposite or paradoxical to the rest of the rib cage.
chest tubes restores of maintains negative intrapleural pressure to keep the lung properly flated
Created by: jekjes