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Labor and Birth

Labor The process by which the fetus, placenta, and amniotic membranes are expelled from the uterus
What initially causes labor to begin Is not known, but is thought to be a cascade of events.
What contributes to the onset of labor Changes in maternal hormone levels; stretching of the uterus by the growing fetus; and an interaction between the placenta and the fetal pituitary, hypothalamus, and adrenal glands
What are the four P's Passageway, Passenger, Powers, and Psyche
Anterior fontanelle A diamond-shaped area formed by the intersection of four sutures (frontal, sagittal, and 2 cornoal)
Posterior fontanelle A tiny triangular depression formed by the intersection of 3 sutures (1 sagittal and 2 lambdoid)
Molding Shaping the fetal head by overlapping of the cranial bones to facilitate movement through the birth canal during labor
Fetal Attitude Is the relation of teh fetal parts to one another.
Fetal lie Is the relation of teh longitudinal axis of the fetus to the longitudinal axis of the mother
Fetal Presenetation Is determined by the body part of the fetus that is lowest in the mother's pelvis.
Fetal Position A more specific indication of the fetopelvic relationship, is the relationship of some designated point on the presenting part to the four quadrants of the maternal pelvis
What are the notations used to describe the fetal position? R or L: side of the maternal pelvis; correlates with the R or L side of the woman's bodyO, S, or M: Designated point (landmark) of fetal presenting part: O- occiput, S- sacrum, or M- mentum (face)A or P: Anterior or Posterior
Station Is how far the fetal presenting part has descended into the mother's pelvis.
Cervical Effacement Is the shortening and thinning of the cervix
Cervical Dilation Is the enlargement of the cervical opening (os) from 0 to 10cm (complete dilation)
What are the phases of contrations Increment: the period of increasing strengthPeak or Acme: the period of greatest strengthDecrement: The period of decreasing strength
Contractions are also described by their: Average frequency; Duration; Intensity; & Interval
Frequency of contraction: The elapsed time from the beginning of one contraction until the beginning of the next contraction
Duration of contraction: Is the elapsed time from the beginning of a contraction until the end of the same contraction.
Intensity of contraction: Is the approximate strength of the contractionDescribed as moderate, mild, or strong/firm
Mild Contractions Fundus can be indented with the fingertips but with more difficulty, feels similar to the chin
Moderate Contractions Fundus can be indented with the fingertips but with more difficulty, feels similar to the tip of the nose
Firm Contractions Fundus cannot be readily indented with the fingertips, feels similar to the forehead
Interval: Is the amount of time the uterus relaxes between contractions
What signs indicates that labor is usually not far away Lightening, vaginal discharge (show), false labor, spontaneous rupture of the membranes, & cervial changes
Lightening Describes what happens when the fetus begins to settle in the maternal pelvis and moves downward toward the pelvic outlet
Bloody Show Caused by increased pressure in the pelvic region, a blood-tinged mucous plug becomes disloged from the cervical os
Braxton Hicks Contractions Are irregular painless contractions that begin during early pregnancy and are rarely perceived by the pregnant woman
False Labor/ Prodromal Labor When the cervix has not dilated and contractions remain irregular or stop
What is the conclusive difference between true labor and false labor? Cervical change such as dilation which occurs with true labor
SROM Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes
What is there a danger of when the membranes rupture Of a prolapsed cord if the fetal head has not settled in the pelvis (the umbilical cord can descend along with the discharge of amnio fluid)
How is SROM differentiated from urine or vaginal fluid A nitrazine paper test is used to determine the pH of the fluid. Amnio fluid is slightly alkaline which turns the paper blue.
AROM and PROM refers to: Artificially Rupture of Membranes & Premature Rupture of Membranes
When does the first stage of labor begin and end? Begins with the onset of regular contractions and is complete when the cervix is fully dilated and effaced
The first stage is referred to as The stage of dilation and effacement
The first stage of labor is divided into what three phases Latent, Active, and Transition
Latent phase Begins with the onset of regular contractions and lasts until the cervix has dilated to at least 4cm
The first stage of labor may last how long? 8-20 hours in the primipara and 5-14 hours in the multipara
Active Phase Contractions are stronger and last longer, with the result that cervical dilation progresses from 4 to 7 cm
Transition Phase The last part, cervical dilation completes 8 to 10cm. Contractions are more frequent, last longer, and are stronger
Second Stage of Labor is referred to as: The stage of expulsion
When does the second stage begin and end? Begins when the cervix is completely dilated 10cm and ends with the birth of the baby.
How long does the second stage usually last From a few minutes to 2 hours
The third stage of labor is referred to as The placental separation stage
When does the third stage of labor begins and end? It begins with the birth of the baby and ends with the expulsion of the placenta, the average length is 5-10 minutes
What is the fourth stage of labor referred to as Stage of recovery
When does the fourth stage of labor begin and end? Begins with the delivery of the placenta and lasts through the first 1 to 4 hours until the mothers vital signs are stable.
Engagement Occurs when the biparietal diameter of the fetal head reaches the level of the ischial spine of the mother's pelvis
Flexion Occurs as the fetal head decends. Enables the smallest fetal diameter to enter the maternal birth canal
Internal rotation The turning of the fetal head until the occiput is directly under the maternal symphysis pubis in preparation for birth of the head
Extension Part of the birth process in which the fetal head changes position from chin on the chest to chin away from the chest (extension)
External rotation The realignment of the fetal head with the shoulders after the head is delivered, and the alignment of the fetal shoulders with the mother's pelvis before delivery of the newborn.
Created by: mnunn5038