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Med-Surg ch.14

Lower Resp. disorders Ch. 14

Aerosol fine suspensions of very small particles of liquid or solid that constitiute a gas
Asthma- restrictive airway disease causing narrowing of of airway and muscus production.
Atelectsis- incomplete expansion or collapse of alveoli. Occurs from expansion of the lungs from outtside, a decrease in surfactant or bronchial obstruction. is usually reversible.
Bronchiectasis- chronic respiratory disorder in which one or more bronchi are dilated. Thought to occur as a result of frequent respiratory infection as a child. classified under CAL-chronic airflow limitation
Bronchodilator- drugs that act directly on the smooth muscle odf the bronchi to relax them and thereby relieve bronschospasms.
Cor pulmonale- enlargement of the righ side of the heart as a result of pulmonary hypertension caused by constriction of the pulmonary vessels in response to hypoxia.this puts pt at risk for right sided heart failure
Emphysema- disease of the terminal respiratory units. Distruction of alveolar and alveolar-capillary walls as well as narrowed and tortuous small airways.
Hemoptysis- blood in the sputum
Hemothroax- presence of blood in the pleural cavity. Occur as a result of laceration of the lung, heart, and blood vessels within the thorax
Intrathoracic- surgery that requires opening the chest wall and entering the pleural cavity.
Leukotriene- are inhibitors that treat asthma, they help control symptoms by blocking the activities of these substances that mediate inflammation
Nebulizer- a device that produces a fine mist via mask, face tent, or tracheotomy collar.
Paradoxical respirations- occurs when the ribs are broken in more than one place, and the chest is drawn in on inhaling instead of expanding outward as the rest of the chest does,
Pleurisy- inflammation of the pleura, occurs from tuberculosis, pneumonia, neoplasm, and pulmonary infraction. lying on the affected side provides some relief.
Pneumonectomy- removal of an entire lung
Pneumothorax- air or gas within the pleural cavity
Pneumonia- inflammation of the lungs with either consolidation of the lung tissue as it fills with exudates or interstitial inflammation and edema.
Polycythemia- increase in red blood cells that cause the skin to have a reddish color( from Co2 retention)
Sarcoidosis- lung disease charactized by granulomas causes fibrotic changes in the lung tissue over time and cause is unknown.
Subcutaneous emphysema- accumulation of air or gas under the skin
Throacentesis- removal of fluid from the pleural cavity.
Thoracotomy- incision with entry in to the thorax.
Thrombolytic- dissolves thrombi, therapy using streptokinase, urokinase, or tissue plasminogen activator.
Pulmonary Turberculosis- and infection disease of the lung charactized by lesions within the lung tissue.
Acute Bronchitis is viral, and is an extension of an upper respiratory infection involving the trachea(tracheobronchitis)
Symptoms of Acute Bronchitis? chest pain, fever, dry hacking cough
Influenza highly infectious disease of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. has 3 types(A most virulent, B, C). influenza vaccines protect only agaist certain types of strains!
How is Influenza spread? by direct and indirect contact via coughing and sneezing and contaminated hands
SARS stand for what(influenza type of respiratory disease)? severe acute respiratory syndrome, these are spread from person to person. avian flu and west Nile Virus are spread by vectors like birds and mosquitoes
What are the signs and symptoms of influenza and when do they occur? occurs 2-3 day after exposure and include anorexia, muscle aches, chills fever.
How is Influenza treated? treated with nursing intervention rather than with drug or other medical treatments.
name some interventions for patients with influenza? >fluid intake to 3000mL/day,give cough meds at bed time, provide oral care q4h, humidify the air, watch for secondary infection.
Pneumonia Inflammation of the lung with consolidaion of the lung tissue as it fills with exudate or, interstitial inflammation and edema.
This pneumonia is more severe and it produces exudate leading to consolidation(usually occurs in the lower lungs because of gravity and where bacteria settle) Bacterial Pneumonia
This Pneumonia produces interstitial inflammation and not exudate? Viral Pneumonia
People with chronic respiratory disease get treated with what vaccine? Pneumovax, it protects against 23 pneumococcal organisms!
This type of Pneumonia has a 30-50% death rate? Nosocomial(hospital acquired)Pneumonia
How is Pneumonia diagnosis confirmed? by chest x-ray which reveals densities in the affected lung.
This type of Pneumonia can be missed because it can lack the normal symptoms. Atypical Pneumonia
What is typical Pneumonia treated with? IV or oral antibiotic agents like erythromycin or the new marolides-Cipro
What is used to treat Atypical Pneumonia and what causes it? it is caused by Mycoplasm and it is treated by Erythromycin or Clarithromycin.
What are the 1st signs of < O2 are? Restlessness or confusion
Empyema this disease is charactized by fluid within the pleural cavity becomes infected, the exudate becomes thick and prulent
How is a patient tested for Empyema? fluid is sent to the lab for culture and sensitivity test. this determines which exact antibiotics will destroy the organism causing the infection.
What is PCP? (Pneumocystis carinii Jiroveci)? it is a fungal pneumonia that is found only in the immunocompromissed patient(AIDS) and is very lethal.
Where does fungal lung disease come from? comes from the inhalation of the fungus spores or by the overgrowth of organisms normally found in the body. types coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis(
Coccidioidomycosis Lung infections this type occurs in the San Joaquin valley of california, comes from desert recreational activities or jobs that require digging in the earth.
Histoplasmosis Lung infections occurs in North America , the fungus lives in moist soil, floor of chicken coops, bat cave and in bird droppings.
This acid-fast, aerobic, slow-growing bacillus causes TB? Mycobacterium tuberculosis-it enters the lungs and causes a local inflammatory reaction,usually in the upper lobes.
These two meds are used to treat type A Influenza? Symmetrel and Tamiflu
these people are susceptible to fungal lung infections? Cystic Fibrosis patients
these people have high incidences of TB? american indians, asians,black & hispanics
Mantoux Test is done for what? it it is used to test for TB.
QuantiFERON-TB Gold test is done for what? it is a mor accurate test for TB, its a blood test that produces less false-positive test
A diagnosis of active TB is established when what occurs? When the tubercle bacillus is found in the sputum or gastric washings.
What combination drugs are used to treat TB, active TB, usually treatment last for a year? Isoniazid (INH), Streptomycin, Rifampin etc....
Which vitamin is used to treat TB, it is coverted into an active form(by WBC's) that helps make a protien that kills TB bacteria Vitamin D
This drug is used as a preventive measure to prevent TB with up to 85% effectiveness. INH Isoniazid
What is Extrapulmonary or Miliary TB(it is usually rare)? this is when the tb bacillus attacks and damages partsof the body other than the lungs.the affected areas include the bones, meninges, urinary sys, and reproductive sys.
This Tb is rare and it affects the spine? Potts' disease, you usually see Kyphosis or hunchback
Cystic Fibrosis-CF a chronic genetic disease in which there is exessive muscus production because of exocrine gland dysfunction. occurs most often in white children. CF is a major cause of Bronchiectasis. Lung damage occurs as a result of CF; lifespan is about 33 years
This device is used to aid the CF patient loosen and bring up the lung secretions that are blocking the airway. it combines positive expiratory pressure w/high frequency oscillation at the airway opening. Flutter Valve
This recombinant DNA med is used to reduce the number of lung infections and to improve lung function. DNase
Sarcoidosis this lung disease is charaterized by granulomas(Lesions , scar tissue)Most common is blacks!! the scaring < functional lung tissue.
signs and symptoms of Sarcoidosis dyspnea, nonproductive cough, inspiratory crackles, and sometimes clubbed fingers.
What causes Restrivtive Pulmonary disorders? it is caused by < elasticity or compliance of the lungs or < ability of the chest wall to expand. Ex: Myasthenia Gravis , Arthritis
Pleural Effusion is a collection of fluid in the pleural space, a thoracentesis is usually done.
These type of disorders are charatized by problems moving air into and out of the lungs? Obstructive puomonary disorders
Asthma, Emphysema and chronic Bronchitis are examples of what type of diseases? CAL-chronic airway limitation(due to genetics and habitual smoking)
What 2 diseases are included in COPD? Emphysema & Chronic Bronchitis, caused by smoking and lack of AAT
Signs & Symptoms of Emphysema? Dyspnea,pt's hold sholulder up to enlarge the space in which the lungs can expand, skin is a pinkish color.
This COPD disease is caused by an excess secretion of muscus that interfers with airflow and inflammation damage to the bronchial muscosa that causes a productive cough? Chronic Bronchitis
chronic Bronchitis pt's suffer from what? Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia, polycythemia and have> hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
How is COPD treated? treated with bronchiodilators and antiinflammatory agents and steroid antiinflammatory or antiobiotics if bacterial infection is present.
Why is nutrition important for the COPD patient? because extra work of breathing for the patient uses extra calories.
Long term use of Bronchdilators and corticosteroid drugs used to treat COPD is though to cause what? GERD and Peptic Ulcers
This device is used to monitor the greastest airflow velocity that can be produced during forced expiration, it assesses airflow obstruction Peak Flowmeter
Created by: VRoberts