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68wm6 Resp & Cardio

class 10-08 exam 5

Alveolus microscopic air sac within the lung, where gas exchange takes place
Apnea cessation of breathing after expiration
Bronchial Tree the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs
Bronchus a primary branch of the trachea that leads to the lung
Bronchioles a small branch of a bronchus within the lung
Cellular Respiration the utilization of O2 by the cells to produce energy (ATP), CO2 and H2O
Cricoid Cartilage ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Eupnea normal (quiet) breathing
External Respiration exchange of gases between alveoli and blood
Hyperventilation prolonged rapid and deep breathing
Hypoventilation decrease in respiratory rate, very slow and shallow breathing
Hypoxemia deficiency of O2 in arterial blood
Hypoxia deficiency of O2 reaching the tissues and cells
Ischemic hypoxia because of diminished blood flow
Anemic hypoxia because of diminished RBCs and Hemoglobin
Internal Respiration exchange of gases between the blood and tissues (or body cells)
Pulmonary Ventilation process of mechanically moving air into and out of the lungs
Respiration the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells
Respiratory Cycle one inspiration followed by one expiration
Surface Tension the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules
Tachypnea increased breathing (frequency) but not necessarily an increase in tidal volume
Upper Respiratory Tract includes the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and pharynx
Lower Respiratory Tract include the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
Acid An "acidic" solution has a pH less than 7
Anion Negative charged ions
Base (Alkali) An alkaline (base) solution has a pH greater than 7
Buffer A buffer is the conjugate (combined) base of a weak acid; it accepts and relinquishes H+, thereby minimizing changes in free H+ concentration
Cation Positive charged ions
C02 Carbon dioxide
C3H603 Lactic acid
Electrolyte Substance that dissolves in water and results in a solution that conducts an electric current
Electric charge symbols Plus (+) and minus (-) indicate that the substance in question is ionic in nature and has an imbalanced distribution of electrons This is the result of chemical breakdown
HC03- Bicarbonate
H2C03 Carbonic acid
Homeostasis Defined as balance In the body pH is maintained by buffer systems
H+ Hydrogen
ion An atom or group of bonded atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged
Oxidation describes the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion
pH Stands for the power of H, or the amount of H+ ions acids or bases take or contribute in solution Express acidity, basicity, and neutrality of a solution
Reduction describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion
Assimilation the utilization of nutrients by living tissue and cells
Absorption the movement of nutrients into the circulatory system. Molecules of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol go from inside the intestines into the circulating fluids of the body
Bolus a mass of food and saliva that is ready to be swallowed
Chyme a semi-fluid mixture of food and gastric juice
Digestion the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of the resulting nutrients by cells
Defecation the elimination of indigestible substances from the Ingestion - the taking in of food into the mouth, i. e. bowel movement
Mechanical digestion the process of breaking food down into smaller pieces without altering the chemical composition
Colostomy opening surgically created in the colon to divert intestinal contents after lower portions of the bowel are surgically removed
Constipation decreased passage of bowel movement or hard dry feces
Diarrhea frequent loose stools page 56
Defecation elimination of bowel wastes
Enema instillation of solution into the rectum and sigmoid colon
Feces stool; waste products eliminated through the colon
Flatulence gas
Hemorrhoids enlarged vein inside or outside of the rectum
Ileostomy opening surgically created at the point of ileum to divert intestinal contents after lower portions of the bowel are surgically removed
Impaction presence of fecal mass too large or hard to pass voluntarily
Ostomy opening into the intestine that diverts feces from its normal pathway
Stoma artificial opening into the intestine
Created by: jason.flora