Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

2010-07-14 #1.3

Microbial pathogens causing diarrhea

CC of diarrhea in AIDS when CD4 T cell count < 50~100 cells/mm^3: Rx? ganciclovir (CMV)
MCC of "adult" gasroenteritis; common infection on "cruise ships": MOT? fecal-oral transmission (Norwalk virus)
MCC of "childhood" diarrhea in winter months: pathogenesis? type of diarrhea? damaged ion transport pump in small intestine; secretory diarrhea
Rx & ProRx: rotavirus? rotavirus oral vaccine; oral hydration; nitazoxanide
gram[+] rod; reheated fried rice or tacos: Dx? preformed toxin of bacillus cereus
curved[S] shaped gram[-] rod; cattle, chicken, puppies(for children); fecal-oral transmission; MC food-borne illness & invasive entercolitis in US: type of diarrhea? invasive & secretory enterocolitis: dysentery + crypt abscesses & ulcers resembling ulcerative coliti (Campylobacter jejuni)
Rx: Campylobacter jejuni azithromycin
associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome; hemolytic uremic syndrome; HLA-B27 ankylosing spondylitis: Dx? Campylobacter jejuni
preformed toxin: block release of acetylcholine release in presynpatic terminal of neuromuscular junction in ANS; descending paralysis, mydriasis, dry mouth: Dx? Clostridium botulinum
spores: floppy baby with constipation: Rx? trivalent antitoxin (Clostridium botulinum)
MCC of nosocomial diarrhea: Ax? type of diarrhea? toxin? pseudomembranous colitis; secretory type (Clostridium difficile); exotoxin A & B
antibiotic causing C.difficile overgrowth? ampicillin; quinolones; clindamycin (Clostridium.Q&A)
Rx: Clostridium difficile metronidazole; vancomycin
undercooked beef; hemolytic uremic syndrome: Rx? STEC(O157:H7 serotype); antibiotics X recommended; may enhance toxin release
diarrhea with malabsorption in AIDS when CD4 count < 50 cell/mm^3: complication? foamy macrophages in lamina propria > "Whipple's disease" (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex)
acid fast organisms? MAC; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
invasion into Peyer's patches; circumferential spread in lymphatics lead to complication: Dx? M.tuberculosis; acid-fast
2nd MC food-borne illness in US; raw or undercooked "egg" products, raw milk, milk products, poultry or contaminated water: reservoir? animal reservoir: turtles, hamsters, lizards
Rx: Salmonella enteritidis enterocolitis ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin
invasion into Peyer's patches; sepsis: best diagnostic? blood culture at week 1 in typhoid fever by S.typhi
triad of bradycardia; neutropenia; splenomegaly and diarrhea: Rx? if symptomatic: luoroquinolone (S.typhi = typhoid fever)
no animal reservoir; highly infectious in day care centers; mucosal ulceration + pseudomembranous inflammation in rectosignoid, dysentery: Ax? seronegative spondyloarthropathy (Shigella sonnei)
Rx: Shigella sonnei if symptomatic: fluoroquinolone or azithromycin
azithromycin Shigella sonnei; Campylobacter jejuni
preformed toxin-mediated food poisoning; gastroenteritis in 1 to 6 hrs after eating; diagnostic? culture "food", X "stool"
enterotoxin stimulating adenylate cyclae in small bowel; contaminated water or seafood (esp, crustacea): morphology? Rx? gram[-] comma-shaped rod; fluid replacement; glucose & sodium in oral supplement (cotransport system for absorption); doxycycline or fluroquinolone
fluoroquinolone Salmonella; Shigella; Vibrio cholerae
gram[-] coccobacillus with bipolar staining; granulomatous microabscesses; mimicks acute appendicitis: Dx? Yersinia enterocolitis
association with HLA-B27 positive seronegative spondyloarthropathy & seropositive spondyloarthropathy Shigella sonnei & Yersinina enterocolitica; Campylobacter jejuni
TMP-SMX Y.enterocolitica; Cyclospora; Isospora
transmitted by ingestion of "cysts" in food or water Balantidium coli; Cryptosporidium parvum(oocysts); Entamoeba histiolytica; Giardia lamblia
largest "ciliated" protozoa; colonic ulcer with bloody diarrhea: Dx? Balantidium coli
MCC of diarrhea in AIDs; partial acid-fast; outbreaks of diarrhea in water supply (Milwaukee, Wisconsin): Dx? Cryptosporidium parvum
Rx: Cryptosporidium parvum nitazoxanide
fecal-oral transmission; common in AIDs diarrhea; partially acid-fast oocysts; raspberries Cyclospora
fecal-oral transmission; common in AIDs diarrhea; non partially acid-fast: Rx? Microsporidia; albendazole
nonmotile cysts formed in stool; dysentery; flask-shaped ulcers; "anchovy paste" abscess; RBCs in trophozoites: Dx? Rx? Entamoeba histiolytica; metronidazole
Nitazoxanide Giardia lamblia; Cryptosporidium parvum
MCC protozoal cause of diarrhae in US; day care centers, hikers, water supplies, homosexual, IgA deficiency, CVID; acute and chronic diarrhea with malabsorption: Dx? Giardia lamblia
Rx: Giardia lamblia tinidazole or nitazoxanide
ingestion of eggs in helminths Enterobius vermicularis; Trichuris trichiura; Ascaris lumricoides
diarrhea with B12 deficiency; ingestion of larvae (fish) in lake trout (Great Lakes): Dx? Rx? Diphyllobothrium latum; praziquantel
bare feet; larval phase through lungs; autoinfection; massive reinfection in IC patients; abdominal pain & diarrhea: Dx? Strongyloides stercoralis
Rx: Strongyloides stercoralis ivermectin
blood loss; iron deficiency; intestinal nematode: term? Rx? Necator americanus; albendazole or mebendazole
raw fish dishes (sushi, sashimi); pickled herring; cramping abdominal pain with epigastric distress; IgE antibody test: Dx? Anisakis simplex
MC helminth in US; pruritus ani; urethritis in girls; acute appendicitis; X eosinophilia: Dx? non invasive Enterobius vermicularis
rectal prolapse in children; eosinophilia Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm)
eosinophilia Trichuris trichiura; larval phase of Ascaris lumbricoides
albendazole and/or mebendazole E.vermicularis; T.trichiura; N.americanus; A.lumbricoides for both
Created by: mataos



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards