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AP II chp 19

What is the function of the cardiovascular system(blood) to transport materials to and from cells
What are the 3 main components of the cardiovascular system? heart(a pump); blood vessels(a conducting system); blood(fluid medium)
What are the functions of blood? 1)transport dissolved substances;2)regulation of pH and ions;3)restriction of fluid losses at injury sites;4)defense against toxins and pathogens;5)stabilization of body temp
3 types of formed elements (whole blood) red blood cells; white blood cells; platelets
function of red blood cells transport oxygen
What are white bloods cells part of? part of the immune system
Platelets cell fragments involved in clotting
hemopoiesis process of producing formed elements
fractionation process of separating whole blood for clinical analysis
What are the 3 plasma proteins? albumins; globulins; fibrinogen
function of albumins transport substances
function of globulins (round);antibodies; transport small molecules
function of fibrinogen form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin
hemoglobin the red pigment that gives whole blood its color; binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
structure of RBCs small, highly specialized discs; thin in middle and thicker at edge
importance of RBC shape and size quickly absorbs and releases oxygen
lifespan of RBCs lack nuclei, mitochondria(no ATP) and ribosomes(no protein)=means no repair and anaerobic metabolism; live about 120days
the protein molecule of hemoglobin's function is? transports respiratory gases
phagoctyes break hemoglobin into its components: globular proteins to amino acids; heme to biliverdin(makes bile green); iron
hemoglobinuria hemoglobin breakdown products in urine due to EXCESS HEMOLYSIS IN BLOODSTREAM
hematuria whole RBCs in urine due to KIDNEY OR TISSUE DAMAGE
erythropoiesis occurs only in myeloid tissue(red bone marrow) in adults; stem cells mature to become RBCs; made in red bone marrow by stem cells
hemocytoblasts stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce myeloid stem cells: become RBCs, some WBCs; lymphoid stem cells: become lymphocytes
What is required when building RBCs? amino acids; iron; vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid
erythropoietin(EPO) secreted when oxygen in peripheral tissues is low(hypoxia)-due to disease or high altitude
WBCs aka leukocytes; DO NOT have hemoglobin; have nuclei and other organelles; longer life span
WBCs functions defend against pathogens; remove toxins and wastes; attack abnormal cells
most WBCs are in: connective tissue proper; lymphoid system organs
T OR F: WBC can't migrate out of bloodstream F they can
What kind of movement do WBCs have? amoeboid movement
List the types of WBCs neutrophils; eosinophils; basophils; monocytes; lymphocytes
neutrophils pale cytoplasm granules with: lysosomal enzymes and bactericides(both of these kill any bacterial pathogen); most common
neutrophil action very active; engluf pathogens; digest pathogens; release prostaglandins and leukotrienes; form pus
degranulation removing granules from cytoplasm
defensins attack pathogen membranes(PEPTIDE)
T/F: Defensin-rich primary granules fuse with phagcytic vacuoles T
Eosinophils attack large parasites; excrete toxic compounds; sensitive to allergens; control inflammation w/ enzymes that counteract inflammatory effects of neutrophils and mast cells
basophils small; accumulate in damaged tissue; release histamine-dilates blood vessels; release heparin-prevents blood clotting
monocytes large, spherical; enter peripheral tissues and become marcophages; engulf large particles and pathogens; secrete substances that attract immune system cells and fibrocytes to injured area
lymphoctyes larger than RBCs; migrate in and out of blood; mostly in connective tissues and lymphoid organs; part of the body's specific defense system
Name the 3 classes of lymphocytes T cells; B cells; Natural killer (NK) cells
T cells cell-mediated immunity; attack foreign cells directly
B cells humoral immunity; differentiate into plasma cells synthesize anitbodies
natural killer (NK) cells detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells (cancers)
platelets circulate for 9-12 days; removed by spleen; 2/3 are reserved for emergencies
3 functions of platelets release imprtant clotting chemicals; temporarily patch damaged vessel walls; actively contract tissue after clot formation
platelet production = thromobocytopoiesis: occurs in bone marrow
megakaryocytes giant cells in bone marrow that manufacture platelets from cytoplasm
hemostasis cessation of bleeding
3 phases of hemostasis vascular phase, platelet phase, coagulation phase
3 steps of vascular phase 1)endothelial cells contract; 2)endothelial cells release: chemical factors, local hormones, stimulate smooth muscle contraction and cell division;3)endothelial plasma membranes become "sticky":seal off blood flow
3 steps of platelet phase platelet adhesion(attachment);platelet aggregation (stick together); activated platelets release clotting compounds
name the 3 coagulation pathways extrinsic pathway; intrinsic pathway; common pathway
extrinsic pathway begins in the vessel wall:damaged cells release tissue factor(TF); TF+other compounds=enzyme complex; activates Factor X
intrinsic pathway begins with circulating proenzymes: activation of enxymes by collagen;platelets release factors; activates Factor X
common pathway where intrinsic and extrinsic pathways converge: forms enzyme prothrobinase; converts prothrombin to thrombin; thrombin converts fibrinogen to FIBRIN
fibrin fibrillar protein that is polymerised to form a "mesh" that forms a hemostatic plug or clot(in conjuction w/ platelets)
hemostasis and clotting:area restriction anticoagulants(plasma proteins); heparin; protein C=major physiological anticoagulant; prostacyclin=vasodilator; prevents formation of the platelet plug
calcium ions, vitamin K and blood clotting calcium ions (Ca2+) and vitamin K are both essential to the clotting process
fibrinolysis slow porcess of dissolving clot
hemostasis-clot retraction thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA): activate plasminogen(proenzyme of plasmin); plasminogen produces plasmin=digest fibrin strands
plasma water, dissolved plasma proteins, other solutes
metalloprotein = hemoglobin(Hb)
EPO increases what? RBC production
prostaglandins = vasodilation
leukotrienes = help what and increase what? help bring in more neutrophils; increase vascular permeability
Pus is: dead neutrophils
neutrophils die after how long; what does it become? after 12-24 days; become pus
nitric oxide (gas) diffuses how? quickly
mast cells creats what then what is result histamine = ^ blood flow
heparin is a ? blood thinner
mast cells are in connective tissue so: don't circulate, stay local
T/F: Basophils circulate T
in the vascular phase; where do u want the platlets formation? keep platalets formation localize (to cut)
importance of vascular phase vasoconstriction = decrease flow and restricting platelet formation
what is the ultimate goal of coagulation phase? making an insoluable wall
the hormones and proteins used for clotting keep platelets where? within the area
vitamin K is made where? liver
^ viscosity and you (increase/decrease) resistance to blood flow increase
what are the general characteristics of blood? high viscosity; slightly alkaline pH (7.35-7.45)
fibrocytes maintain what and help? maintain connective tissue which help in repair
T/F: You do not need Calcium in the process of hemostasis False, you need calcium in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the coagulation phase
Created by: kueeck