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AP II chp 18

Secretes a type of hormone to regulate the body glands
Functions of hormones mood, growth and development, tissue function and metabolism
Direct cell signaling typically involves the movement of ions via gap junctions
signaling cell releases a chemical messenger that binds to a receptor on the target cell and activates a signal transduction pathway indirect cell signaling
paracrine diffusion to a nearby cell
autocrine diffusion back to the signaling cell
endocrine hormone is transported by the circulatory system
neural electrical signal travels along a neuron and releases a neurotransmitter
Three steps of indirect signaling 1)release of chemical messenger; 2)transport of the messenger through the extracellular enviornment to the target cell; 3)communication of the signal to the target cell
types of messengers of indirect signaling hydropphobic(cross membrane by diffusion); and hydrophilic (bind to receptor)
a chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism hormones
hormonal signaling involves: biosynthesis; storage and secretion; transport; recognition; relay and amplification(aka translation)(leads to cellular response); degradation
hormone actions on target cells 1)alter plasma membrane permeability; 2)synthesis of proteins; 3)activate or deactivate enzyme systems; 4)mitosis
hormones can be divided into 3 classes 1)amino acid derivatives; 2)peptide hormones; 3)lipid derivatives
hormone receptor protein molecule; responds to several different hormones; combination of receptors; specific receptor
agonists activate receptors
antagonists block receptors; prevent response from happening
ligand-gated ion channels 1)ligand binds receptor; 2) receptor changes shape opening a channel; 3)ions move across membrane;4)concentration and electrical gradients dictate movement;5)alters membrane potential
Receptor Enzymes activated ligand starts a phosphorylation cascade; name based on the reaction catalyzed
G protein enzyme complex coupled to membrane receptor; second messenger
cAMP signaling mechanism 1st messenger binds to receptor;g-protein activated; adenylate cyclase activated; converts ATP to cAMP(2nd messenger);protein kinases
peptide hormones synthesized on rough ER; stored in vesicles; exocytosis; hydrophilic; bind to transmembrane receptors; rapid effects
steroid and thyroid hormones must be synthesized on demand;transport by carrier proteins(albumin);regulate transcription(slow effects); hydrophobic; synthesis smooth ER or mitochondria; can't be stored w/in cell
Negative Feedback of regulation of cell signaling any change from normal; maintains homeostasis
positive feedback of regulation of cell signaling accelerate or enhance; moves away from normal levels
pituitary gland (hypophysis) releases 9 important peptide hormones; hormones bind to membrane receptors; use cAMP as 2nd messenger
thyroglobulin (globular protein[of the thyroid gland]) produce the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4)and triiodothyronine(T3)
Thyroxine (T4) acts as prohormone for T3
triiodothyronine (T3) exhibits greater activity than T4
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to membrane receptors; activates key enzymes in thyroid hormone production
thyroid hormones bind to receptors in Cytoplasm, surfaces of mitochondria and nucleus
C (Clear) cells of the thyroid gland produce calcitonin (CT);movement of calcium into bone; inhibits osteoclast activity
4 effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) released in response to low concentrations of Ca2+; 1)stimulates osteoclasts;2)inhibits osteoblasts;3)enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ at kidneys;4)stimulates formation and secretion of calcitriol at kidneys
what is the location of suprarenal (adrenal)glands lie along superior border of each kidney
superficial suprarenal cortex stores lipids; manufactures steroid hormones(glucocorticoids[cortisol] and mineralocorticoids[aldosterone])
inner suprarenal medulla secretions controlled by sympathetic of ANS; produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine; metabolic changes persist for several minutes
pineal gland contains pinealocytes=synthesize hormone melatonin
functions of melatonin slows maturation of sperm; antioxidant(protect against damage by free radicals); setting circadian rhythms
insulin peptide hormone release by beta cells; affects target cells
glucagon released by alpha cells; mobilizes energy reserves; affects target cells
intestines hormones important to coordination of digestive activities
kidneys produce the hormones calcitriol and erythropoietin; produce the enzyme renin
heart produces natriuretic peptides: resulting in reduction in blood volume and blood pressure
thymus produces thymosins that help develop and maintain normal immune defenses
gonads testes=testosterone; ovaries=estrogen
adipose tissue secretions leptin=feedback control for appetite; resistin=reduces insulin sensitivity
name the hormones important to growth GH; thyroid hormones; insulin; PTH and Calcitriol; reproductive hormones
T/F: hydrophobic needs a receptor outside the cell false they DO NOT
amino acid derivatives examples: thyroid hormones; catecholamines: epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamin; melatonin
peptid hormones examples: EPO, ADH, oxytocin, insulin
lipid derivatives examples: steroid hormones:estrogens, calcitriol; eicosanoids: prostaglandins
peptide hormones characteristics hydrophilic, made in advance, stored in vesciles, released by exocytosis, short life
steroid homrones hydrophobic, made on demand, released by diffusion, long life
competitive antagonist binds to the same site as nautral ligand=which then blocks natural ligand
noncompetitive antagonist does not bind tot he same site as natural ligand-binds at different area of receptor
BONUS:spell out cGMP and cAMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate; cyclic adenosine monophosphate
what happens when protein kinases phosphorylate proteins? makes them excitable
G protein activates enzyme phospholipase C triggers? receptor cascade: production of diacylglycerol(DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3) from membrane phospholipids
IP3 diffuses into cytoplasm and triggers? releases of Ca2+ from intracellular reserves ie. smooth ER
DAG and Ca2+ activate? protein kinase C which phosphorylates Ca2+(2nd messenger), opening them and Ca2+ enters the cell (pos. feedback)
Effects of cAMP levels with epinephrine and norepinephrine depend on what? receptor type (alpha and beta receptors)
What does the pituitary gland help control? growth, blood pressure, aspects pregnancy/childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ functions, thyroid gland function, metabolism,water and osmolarity regulation,absorption water into kidneys, temp regulation
What are the 2 major lobers of the pituitary gland? posterior pituitary(lobe); anterior pituitary (lobe)
hormones in the anterior pituitary lobe TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, GH, PRL, MSH
hormones in posteriro pituitary lobe oxytocin, ADH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) thyroid
prolactin(PRL) mammary gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) adrenal gland
growth hormone(GH) in adipose tissue and bone
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) gonads(testes, ovaries)
luteinizing hormone (LH) gonads (testes, ovaries)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH) melanocytes
What are the skeletal effects of growth hormone? increased cartilage formation and skeletal growth
what are the extraskeletal effects of growth hormone? increased protein synthesis, and cell growth and proliferation
what are the fat effects of growth hormone? increased fat breakdown and release
what are the carbohydrate metabolism effects of growth hormone? increased blood glucose and other anti-insulin effects
T/F: the pituitary has direct release but not direct control False; has direct control
what are the main effects of thyroid hormones? 1)elevated rates of oxygen and energy consumption;2)increased heart rate and force of contraction; 3)stimulation of RBC formation
Cortisol controls carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and are anti-inflammatory
aldosterone control electrolyte and water levels, mainly by promoting sodium retention in the kidney
endocrine in pancreas consists of cells that form clusters known as pancreatic islets, or isltes of Langerhans; alpha, beta, delta, F cells
alpha cells of pancreas(endocrine) produce glucAgon
beta cells of pancreas(endocrine) produce insulin
delta cells of pancreas(endocrine) produce peptide hormone identical to SOMATOSTATIN ie. GH-IH
F cells of pancreas(endocrine) secrete pancreatic polypeptide(PP)
exocrine in pancreas secreting PANCREATIC JUICE containing digestive enzymes that pass to the duodenum
What happens when blood glucose levels rise(pancreas)? beta cells secret insulin (stimulating transport of glucose across plasma membranes)
what happens when blood glucose levels decline (pancreas)? alpha cells release glucagon(stimulating glucose release by liver)
what is the hormone for delta cells? GH-IH(somatostatin)
what are the hormonal effects of delta cells?(with their hormone) inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion; slows rates of nutrien absorptiona nd enzyme secretion along digestive tract
What is the hormone for F cells? pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
what are the hormonal effects of F cells? (with their hormone) inhibits gallbladder contraction; regulates production of pancreatic enzymes; influences rate of nturient absorption by digestive tract
GH in kids: supports muscular and skeletal development; in adults:maintains normal blood glucose concentrations and mobilizes lipid reserves
thryoid hormones if absent during fetal development, nervous system fails to develop->mental retardation; if T4 concentrations decline before puberty, normal skeletal development will not continue
insulin allows passage of glucose and amino acids across plasma membranes
PTH and calcitriol promote absorption of calcium salts for deposition in bone; inadequate levels causes weak and flexible bones
reproductive hormones androgens in males, estrogens in females; stimulate cell growth and differentiation in target tissues, produce gener-related differences in skeletal proportions and secondary sex characteristics
Created by: kueeck