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This begins with conception and continues through pregnancy GESTATION
Fertilization is the union of the egg and the sperm to form what? ZYGOTE
After fertilization, a rapid series of cell divisions happen, separating into these two things: TROPHOBLAST AND EMBRYOBLAST
Trophoblast During cell divisions-this is the outer layer giving rise to the placenta
Embryoblast During cell divisions-this is the inner core giving rise to the embryo
When/where does fertilization take place, and the formation of the trophoblast and embryoblast While traveling down the fallopian tube toward the uterus
What determines the sex of the baby? Whether the spermatazoon that penetrates the ovum carries an X factor (female) or a Y factor (male)
When does implantation of the zygote into the endometrium of the uterus occur? between 6 to 10 days after conception
What is the union of the egg and the sperm called? Zygote
What is the uterine endometrium called after implantion of the zygote? Decidua
Fingerlike projections that develop out of the trophoblast and extend into the maternal blood vessels of the decidua Chorionic villi
what is the developing placenta called? trophoblast
what do the chorionic villi do? This is where oxygen and nutrients are obtained and carbon dioxide and waste products are disposed
Intrauterine development encompasses three stages: ovum or preeembryonic, embryo, and fetus
When does the ovum stage happen? conception to day 14
What happens during the ovum stage? cellular replication (morula), blastocyst formation, and the differentiation into three primary germ layers of cells from which all fetal tissues and organs will originate
what are the three primary germ layers of cells endoderm/entoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
From what do all fetal tissues and organs originate? the 3 primary germ layers of cells (enoderm/entoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm)
When is the embryo stage? Day 15 to 8 weeks
What is the most critical stage of pregnancy? the embryo stage-day 15 to 8 weeks
When are all organs and external features developed? during the embryo stage (day 15 to 8 weeks)
When is the embryo at its greatest risk from teratogens? the embryo stage (day 15 to 8 weeks)
what are teratrogens? harmful agents that cause fetal malformations
Endoderm/entoderm is what? the inner-most layer of cells in the developing embryo, they give rise to the internal organs (intestines, epithelium of the resp. tract, and other organs).
Mesoderm is what? middle layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to the connective tissue, bone marrow, muscles, blood, lymph tissue, epithelial tissue, and bones and teeth.
What is Ectoderm? The outer layer of cells in the developing embryo that gives rise to skin, nails, hair, glands, and central and peripheral nervous systems
When does the fetus become recognizable as a human? the fetal stage
When is the fetal stage? From 9 weeks until the end of pregnancy
At what stage is it possible for fetal viability? 20 weeks (fetal weight of 500 g or more)
What is dependant of the fetus's extrauterine survival? the oxygenation capabilities of the fetus's lungs and its CNS function
After 32 weeks a fetus... has sufficient surfactant and alveoli are developed enough to provide a fetus with a good chance of survival
When does: fetal heart begin to beat, body is flexed, C-shaped with arm and leg buds present 4 weeks
When are: all body organs formed, and first indication of musculoskeletal ossification 8 weeks
When can the fetal heart rate be heard using a DOPPLER? 8 to 12 weeks
When can the sex of the fetus be determined, blood is forming in marrow, and kidneys are able to secrete urine? 12 weeks
When does: the face look human, meconium is present in the bowel, heart muscle is well-developed, sensory organs differentiated 16 weeks
When does: primitive resp. movements begin, Heartbeat can be heard with a FETOSCOPE, quickening occurs, brain grossly formed, vernix caseosa and lanugo are present 20 weeks
what is the protective, cheese-like coating on skin called? vernix caseosa
what is the fine, downy hair on the fetus called? lanugo
At what point is the: body lean, but well proportioned, Lecithin begins to appear in amniotic fluids, ability to hear 24 weeks
What is Lecethin? a "respiratory marker" that begins to appear in amniotic fluids (at 24 weeks)
When is: Brown fat present, eyes begin to open and close, weak suck reflex 28 weeks
When is: subcut fat collecting, fetus has finger and toe nails, sense of taste is present, aware of sounds outside mother's body 32 weeks
When is: skin pink, body rounded, lanugo on shoulders and upper body only, verix caseosa scant, fetus receives antibodies form mother 38+ weeks
Why does the fetus have 4 specialized circulatory pathways? These are specialized structures that shunt blood away from the lungs and liver.
What are the 4 specialized circulatory pathways called? Ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, ductus venosus, placenta
This structure connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta allowing blood to bypass the lungs DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
This structure is an intra-atrial opening that shunts blood from the right to the left atria of the heart FORAMEN OVALE
This structure shunts blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava allowing most of the blood to bypass the liver DUCTUS VENOSUS
What acts for lungs for the fetus by diffusing maternal oxygen into the fetal blood, and diffuseing carbon dioxide from the fetal blood? Plancenta
What produces the hormones needed to maintain pregnancy? placenta
what performs the metabolic functions of respiration, nutrition, excretion, and storage? plancenta
This maintains a constant body temp of the fetus amniotic fluid
this is a source of oral fluid and repository for waste amniotic fluid
this is a cushion for the fetus to prevent injury amniotic fluid
this allows the fetal movement for MS development amniotic fluid
this prevent the amnion form adhering to the fetus amniotic fluid
the inner membrane of the placenta is called the amnion
this prevents umbilical cord compression amniotic fluid
how many arteries and veins are in the umbilical cord? two umbilical arteries that carry deoxygenated blood away fromthe fetus tothe placenta and one umbilical vein that supplies the embryo with oxygen and nutrients from the placenta (maternal blood supply)
What is the thick substance that surrounds the umbilical cord called? Wharton's jelly
what is the purpose of Wharton's jelly? it acts as a physical buffer to prevent pressure on the vein and arteries in the cord from interfering with fetal circulation
what is amniocentesis used for? to assess for genetic abnormalities or fetal lung maturity
What is the normal fetal HR? 110 to 160 beats/min
When should fetal kicks be reported to the primary care provider? less than 3 movements in 1 hour
What are congenital anomolies? malformations of the fetus that are present at birth
the failure of the fetus to grow at the expected rate "intrauterine growth restriction"
refers to ta fetus or neonate larger than normal for age "macrosomic" (large for gestational age)
identical twinns or a monozygotic pregnancy: result from fertilization of ONE ovum (one = identical)
one or two amniotic sacs with monozygotic twins? either, one or two
the shunt that allows most of the blood that enters the right atrium to flow directly into the left atrium is referred to as? Foramen Ovale
Teratogens, nongenetic risks to the fetus during the 1st trimester can be avoided by avoiding radiation, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, viruses or bacteria
All major organ systems are present by the end of gestational week: 8
Created by: nicoleandtracey