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Leise Section 3

Political Culture

QuestionAnswer
Activist An individual, usually outside government, who actively promotes a political party, philosophy or issue he or she cares personally about.
Australian Ballot An election ballot of uniform size printed by the government and cast in secret.
Band Wagon Effect People often do and believe things because many other people do and believe the same things.
Christian Coalition Conservative religious group who attracted an enourmous amount of media attention and became a prominent force in many national, state, and local elections. They showed how religious beliefs help shape Americal political culture.
Civic Competence A belief that one can affect government policies.
Civic Duty The belief that citizens have an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs.
Cluster Sampling Sampling technique where the enitire set is divided into groups, or clusters, and a random sample od these clusters are selected.
Conservative A political ideaology that does not favor government efforts to ensure that everyone has a job; does not favor strong federal action to help minorities; and does not favor tolerance towards protest demonstration and legalizing marijuana.
Context Effect The influence of enviornmental factors on one's answer to a question. Ex. Multiple choice vs. free response.
Disfranchisement (Disenfranchisement) The revocation of the right to vote from a person or group of people.
Equality of Opportunity An economic value in American culture which maintains that all people should have the same opportunity to get ahead but that people should be paid on the basis of ability rather than on the basis of need.
Equality of Results Everyone gets the same results regardless of effort.
Exit Polls Polls of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations.
External Efficacy The belief that the political system will respond to citizens. This belief has declined in recent years because of public sentiment that the govenrment has become to big to be responsive.
Fifteenth Amendment The constitutional amendment that guarunteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of slavery.
Focus Group A form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitufe towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in a group where participants are free to respond freely with each other.
Gender Gap Differences between the political views of men and women.
Grandfather Claused Said a person could vote, even if he didn't meet legal requirments if he or his ancestors voted before 1867. This allowed poor or illiterate whites to vote.
Instant Response Polling A poll in which responses are given instantly such as facebook surveys.
Internal Efficacy Confidence in one's own ability to understand and take part in political affairs. This confidence has remained stable over the past few decades.
Liberal A political ideology that favors government efforts to ensure everyone has a job; favors stong government involvement to help minorities; and favors tolerance towards protest demonstrations, legalizing marijuana, and protecting the rights of the accused.
Libertarian An adherent of a political ideaology that is conservative on economic matters and liberal on social ones. The ideaology's goal is the creation of a small, weak government.
Literacy Test A state law requiring potential voters to demonstrate reading skills. The laws were frequently implemented in a discriminatory fashion to prevent otherwise qualified blacks from voting. These tests were suspended by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Middle America A phrase coined by Joseph Kraft in a 1968 newspaper column to refer to Americans who have moved out of poverty but who are not yet affluent and who cherish the traditional middle-class values.
Moter-Voter Law A law passed by Congress in 1993 that requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for a driver's liscense and to provide registration through the mail and at some state offices that serve the disabled and provide public assistance.
New Class People whose advantages stem not so much from their connections with buisness as from the growth of government.
Nineteenth Amendment An amendment to the Constitution allowing women the right to vote.
Orthodox Culture (Social) One of two camps in the culture war that believes morality is as important (or even more so) than self-ecpression and that moral rules are derived from God. Not very likely to change, favors status quo.
Political Culture A distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.
Political Efficacy The sense that citizens have the capacity to understand and influence political events.
Political Elite A person who posses a disproportionate share of political power.
Political Ideaology A comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or ideas concerned with the form and role of government.
Political Subculture haracteristics of a particular area that differ from the national political cultue.
Poll Tax A state tax paid prior to voting. The tax was designed to prevent blacks from voting since poor whites were usually exempted through a grandfather clause.
Populist An adherent of a political ideaology that is liberal on economic matters and conservative on social ones. It believes the government should reduce economic inequality but regulate personal conduct.
Progressive Culture Personal freedom is as inportant as, or more important than, certain traditional moral rules and that those rules must be evaluated in the light of the circumstances of modern life.
Push Polls Political campaign technique in which an individual or organization attemptsto influence or alter the view of repondents under the guise of conducting a poll. A form of telemarketing-based propaganda and rumor mongering.
Quota Sample Sets are first divided into clusters and then selected based on proportions.
Random Sample/Sampling A sample selected in such a way that any member of the population being surveyed (e.g. all adults or voters) has an equal chance of being selected.
Refusal Rate The rate at which individuals refuse to answer questions.
Saliency The importance that a respondent attaches to some issue or problem asked about, or the extent to which an issue is "top of mind" to respondents.
Sampling Error The difference between the results from 2 different samples of the same popluation.
Silent Majority A term refereing to people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values,especially against the counterculture of the 1960s.
Skewed Question A biased question, leading an individual to pick one side over the other due to the question.
Social Status (Socio-Economic Status) Standing in society based on education, income, occupation, and social prestiege.
Twenty-Sixth Amendment The 1971 Constitutional amendment that lowered the voting age in both state and federal elections to 18. Congress had attempted to achieve this goal through legislation but the Supreme Court ruled that the gov't couldn't change states.
Twenty-Third Amendment The 1961 Constitutional amendment permitting residents of Washington D.C. to vote in presidential elections.
Voting Rights Act 1965 The federal law that suspended the use of literacy tests in elections and authorized federal examiners to order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% of the voting-age population were registered.
Voting Rights Act 1970 Renewed Voting Rights Act of 1965.
White Primary The exclusion of blacks from voting in the primary elections of political parties. Such primaries were largely employed in the south where the Democratic party won almost all general elections. Winning the Dem. primary meant winning the election.
New Deal Coalition The alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1968, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period.
Created by: jmarient