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Leise Section 2


Block Grants Grants given by the federal govenment to state and local authorities for general purposes.
Categorical Grants Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for a specific purpose defined in a federal law.
Commerce Clause Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3. Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with the Native American Tribes.
Concurrent Powers Powers held by both the federal and state governments. Ex. taxes
Confederate System/Confederation A form of government in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of tha states and local governments, so the national government is dependent on their will.
Conditions of Aid Most important federal restriction on states. A condition which a state must fulfill for taking federal funds.
Creative/Cooperative Federalism and the Great Society (LBJ) (1930-1960) A concept of federalism in which national, state,& local governments interact to solve common problems.
Denied Powers Powers denied to the federal government by the Constitution.
Devolution The effort on the part of the national government to pass responsibility for functions and responsibilities previously held by the national government on to the state governments.
Dual Federalism An interpretation of the Constitution which holds that states are as supreme within their sphere of power as is the federal government within its sphere of power. The Supreme Court no longer supports this interpretation.
Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18. Empowers Congress to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the enumerated powers of Congress.
Enumerated Powers A list of specific respnsibilites written in the Constitution which congress is responsible for.
Federalism The division of power between a national government and regional (state) governments.
Full Faith and Credit Clause Article IV, Section 1. Provides that the various states must recognize legislative acts, public records, and judicial decisions of the other states within the United States.
Grants-in-Aid Federal grants provided to states and localities.
Implied Powers Powers exercised by the federal government of the U.S. that are not expressly delegated to it by the Constitution but derived from the use of the Necessary and Proper Clause.
Initiative Allows voters to place legislative measures directly on the ballot by getting enough signatures on a petition.
John C. Calhoun Revived nullification,Pro=slave, leader in nullification crisis.
John Marshall First chief justice, federalist, and expanded the powers of the Supreme Court and federal government.
Kentucky Resolution Political statements in favor of states' rights and strict constructionism written by Thomas Jefferson.
Layer Cake Federalism The relationship between the central government and the states, where powers and policy assignements are clearly spelled out and distinct from one another.
Mandates Requirements imposed against states and local governments to perfrom. The requirements may have nothing to do with the reception of federal funds and may originate from court orders.
Marble Cake Federalism involves the national and state governments sharing functions and collaborating on major national priorities. Predominated 1930-1960.
Necessary and Proper Clause The final paragraph of Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out enumerated powers.
New Federalism (Competitive) A political philosophy of devolution from national to state governments.
Nullification A doctrine espoused on behalf of the states' rights position which holds that states are empowered to void federal laws considered in violation of the Constitution.
104th Congress Congressional session in which Republicans promised to reduce mandates.
Privileges and Immunities Clause Article IV, Section 2. Prevents a state from treating citizens of another state in a discriminatory manner, with regard to basic civil rights.
Recall A procedure in which 1/3 of states, or people, whereby voters can remove an elected offical from office.
Referendum A procedure that enables voters to reject a measure adopted by the legislature.
Reserved Powers Powers given to the states by the 10th amendment.
Revenue Sharing Grants A grant-in-aid program that allowed states maximum discretion in the spending of federal funds. States werre not required to supply matching funds, and they recieved money according to a statistical formula. Th.e program was terminated in 1986.
Second-Order Devolution The flow of power and responsibility from states to local governments.
Soverneignty The supreme or ultimate political authority. A sovereign government is one that is legally and politically independant of any other government.
Supremacy Clause Article VI. Made national law supreme to state law.
10th Amendment An amendment to the Constitution which defines the powers of the states, stipulating that the states (or the people) retain all powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
Third-Order Devolution The use of non-governmental organizations to implement public policy.
Unfunded Mandates Regulations, ot in some cases conditions for recieving grants, that impose costs on state or local governments or privte entities for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government.
Unitary System A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the natinal government, so that subnational units are dependant on its will.
Virginia Resolution Political statement in favor of states' rights and stric constructionism written by James Madison.
Created by: jmarient