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Physiology chapter 8

The Central Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
During embryonic development, what forms from a groove in the ectoderm by the 20th day and becomes the CNS? Neural tube
During embryonic development what cells develop where the tube fuses and become ganglia of the PNS? Neural crest
During the 4th week of embryonic development, what are the names of the 3 swellings form on the neural tube? Forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
During the 5th week of embryonic development, what are the 2 areas that the forebrain (prosencephalon) is divided into? Telenchphalon and diencephalon
During the 5th week of embryonic development, what 2 areas are the hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) divided into? Metenchephalon and myelencephalon
During embryonic development, what part of the brain grows disproportionately forming the hemispheres of the cerebrum? Telencephalon
The ________and the _________ __________ are remnants of a hollow part of the neural tube that contains the CSF. Ventricles/Central Canal
What are the 3 primary vesicles in the embryonic development of the CNS? Prosencephalon,Mesencephalon, and Rhombencephalon
What part of the cerebral cortex contains the auditory centers; receives sensory info from the cochlea and also links and processes auditory and visual info? Temperal lobe
What part of the cerebral cortex is responsible for vision and coordination of eye movements? Occipital
What part of the cerbral cortex plays a role in memory encoding, integrates sensory info with visceral responses, and assesses bodily states that accompany emotions? Insula
What term describes speech and language disorders due to brain damage? Aphasias
What part of the brain is responsible for speech? Broca's area
What part of the brain is involved in language comprehension? Wernicke's area
What 2 areas of the brain in crucial for emotions including aggrssion, fear, feeding, sex and goal-directed behaviors? Hypothalamus and limbic system
What type of long-term memory includes memories of simple skills and conditioning? Non-declarative (explicit)
What type of long-term memory includes verbal memories? Declarative (implicit)
What is the term that describes people who have impaired declarative memory? Amnesiacs
What part of the brain is critical for acquiring new memories and consolidating short into long term memories? Hippocampus
What part of the brain is crucial for fear memories? Amygdala
Higher order processing and planning occur in what part of the cortex? Prefrontal
The storage of memory is found in what area of the brain? Cerebral hemispheres
What type of information comes from the body and travels to the brain in ascending spinal tracts? Sensory
What activity from the brain travels to the body in descending spinal tracts? Motor
Descending spinal tracts are divided into what 2 major groups? Pyramidial (corticospinal) tracts and Extrapyramidal (reticulospinal) tracts
Where does the pyramidal tracts originate? Motor cortex
What do the pyramidal tracts control? Fine movements
What tracts descend from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord without synapsing? Pyramidal tracts
What are the descending tracts that have many synapses and influence movement indirectly? Extrapyramidal tracts
What tracts cross so that brain hemispheres receive info from opposite sides of the body? Ascending sensory tracts
What nervous system consists of nerves that exit from the CNS and spinal cord, and their ganglia? PNS
The dorsal root of the spinal nerves are composed of what kind of fibers? Sensory
The ventral root of the spinal nerves are composed of what kind of fibers? Motor
Most spinal nerves are _______ nerves that separate next to the spinal cord into dorsal and ventral roots. Mixed
What 2 things can impede learning and cause the hippocampus to shrink? Stress or depression
What is the adult derivative of the Telencephalon? Cerebral Hemisphere
What is the adult derivative of the Diencephalon? Thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the adult derivative of the Metenchephalon? Pons and Cerebellum
What is the adult derivative of the Myelencephalon? Medulla Oblongata
Created by: seshelby62