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laboratory values

platelets normal range 150,000-400,000
leukocytes normal range 4,500-11,000
erythrocytes normal range 4-6.2 million
normal percentage of plasma in whole blood 55%
minimum daily requirement of sodium 15 mEq
major cation of extracellular fluid; maintains osmotic pressure and acid-base balance; assists in transmission of nerve impulses SODIUM
major intracellular cation; regulates cellular water balance, electrical conduction in muscle cells, and acid-base balance; levels are used to evaluate cardiac function, renal function, GI function, and need for IV replacement therapy POTASSIUM
hydrochloric acid salt; most abundant body anion; counterbalances cations such as sodium; acts as a buffer during oxygen and carbon dioxide exchane int he red blood cells; aids in digestion and maintaining osmotic pressure and h20 balance CHLORIDE
mainly responsible for regulating the pH of body fluids BICARBONATE
measures the amount of time it takes for recalcified citrated plasma in seconds to clot after partial thromboplastin is added to it; used to monitor heparin therapy and screen for coagulation disorder ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (aPTT)
normal aPTT value 20-36 seconds
normal aPTT value when on heparin therapy 1.5-2.5 times normal
a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein produced by the liver necessary for fibrin clot formation PROTHROMBIN
measures the amount of time it takes in seconds for clot formation; used to monitor response to warfarin sodium (Coumadin) therapy or screen for clotting dysfunction from liver disease, vitamin K def., or DIC PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)
normal PT value 9.6-11.8 seconds male9.5-11.3 seconds female
measures the effects of oral anticoagulants; standardized PT ratio INTERNATIONAL NORMALIZED RATIO (INR)
normal INR value with standard warfarin therapy 2.0-3.0 seconds
normal INR value for high-dose warfarin therapy 3.0-4.5 seconds
the time required for the interaction of all factors involved in the clotting process CLOTTING TIME
normal clotting value 8-15 minutes
function in hemostatic plug formation, clot retraction, and coagulation factor activation; produced by the bone marrow PLATELETS
normal platelet count 150,000-400,000 cells/mm3
rate at which eythrocytes settle out of anticoagulated blood in 1 hour; test used to detect illnesses associated with aucte and chronic infection, inflammation, advanced neoplasm and tissue necrosis or infarction ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR)
normal ESR value 0-30 mm/hr (depending on age)
main component of erythrocytes; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide; important in identifying anemia HEMOGLOBIN
represents red blood cell mass; important in identifying anemia or polycythemia HEMATOCRIT
found predominantly in hemoglobin; carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and indirectly aids in the return of CO2 to the lungs; aids in diagnosing anemias and hemolytic disorders IRON
normal iron values 65-175 mcg/dL male50-170 mcg/dL female
function in hemoglobin transport, results in delivery of oxygen to the body tissues; formed by red bone marrow; removed form the blood via the liver, spleen, and bone marrow; count aids in diagnosing anemias and blood dyscrasias RED BLOOD CELL (RBC)/ERYTHROCYTES
life span of red blood cells 120 days
normal RBC count 4.5-6.2 million cells/uL male4-5.5 million cells/uL female
enzyme found in muscles and brain tissue; levels rise within 6 hours of muscle damage, peaks at 18 hours, and returns to normal in 2-3 days; test performed to detect myocardial or skeletal muscle or CNS damage CREATINE KINASE (CK)
normal CK value 26-174 units/L
cardiac isoenzyme CK-MB
brain isoenzyme CK-BB
(skeletal) muscles isoenzyme CK-MM
CK-MB value 0%-5% of total
CK-MM value 95%-100% of total
CK-BB value 0%
LDH isoenzymes affected by acute myocardial infarction LDH1 and LDH2
begins to rise about 24 hours after myocardial infarction and peaks in 48-72 hours; returns to normal within 7-14 days LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
when LDH1 is higher than LDH2; helpful in diagnosin myocardial infarction LDH FLIP
regulatory protein found in striated muscle (skeletal and myocardial); increased amounts are released into the bloodstream when an infarction damages the myocardium; levels elevate 3 hours after injury; TROPONIN
normal Troponin I value*remains elevated for 7-10 days <0.6 ng/mL; >1.5 ng/mL refects myocardial infarction
normal Troponin T levels*remains elevated for 10-14 days >0.1-0.2 ng/mL reflect myocardial infarction
oxygen-binding protein found in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscle that releases oxygen at very low tensions; injury to skeletal muscle causes release into the blood; levels rise 2 hours after MI, and declines rapidly after 7 hours MYOGLOBIN
normal value of myoglobin <90 mcg/L; elevation indicates myocardial infarction
main plasma protein of blood; maintains oncotic pressure and transports insoluble substances; increased in dehydration, diarrhea, metastatic carcinoma; increased in acute infection, ascites, alcoholism; *should not be detected in urine ALBUMIN
normal albumin value 3.4-5 G/dL
enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta; level rises during periods of bone growth, liver disease, and bile duct obstruction ALKALINE PHOSPHATE
normal alkaline phosphate value 4.5-13 King-Armstrong untis/dL
byproduct of protein catabolism; most of it created by bacteria acting on proteins in the gut; metabolized by the liver, excreted in the kidneys as urea; elevated levels from hepatic dysfunction can lead to encephalopathy AMMONIA
normal ammonia volume 35-65 mg/dL
enzyme produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, aids in digestion of complex carbohydrates and excreted by the kidneys; amylase levels increase greatly in acute pancreatitis- rises in 3-6 hrs, peaks at 24 hrs, returns to normal in 2-3 days AMYLASE
normal amylase value 25-151 units/L
pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and trigs into fatty acids and glycerol; elevated levels occur in pancreatic diroders; occurs in 24-36 hrs after onset up to 14 days LIPASE
normal lipase value 10-140 units/L
produced by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow; also byproduct of Hgb breakdown; increases with jaundice; indirect and directs levels help differentiate the cause BILIRUBIN
normal direct (conjugated) bilirubin value*total bilirubin can be broken down into direct bilirubin which is excreted primarily via the intestinal tract 0-0.3 mg/dL
normal indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin value*circulates primarily in the bloodstream 0.1-1.0 mg/dL
normal total bilirubin value <1.5 mg/dL
consists primarily of cholesterold, tirglycerides, and phospholipids; assessment includes total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigs. (BLOOD) LIPIDS
present in all body tissues and major component of LDL, brain and nerve cells, membranes, and some gallbladder stones CHOLESTEROL
constitute a major part of VLDLs and a small part of LDLs; synthesized in the liver from fatty acids, protein, and glucose; obtained from the diet TRIGLYCERIDES
helps protect agianst the risk of coronary artery disease HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL)
normal cholesterol value 140-199 mg/dL
normal LDL value <130 mg/dL
normal HDL value 30-70 mg/dL
normal triglycerides value <200 mg/dL
reflects the total amount of albumin and globulins in the plasmal regulares osmotic pressure and comprises coagulation factors; PROTEIN
normal protein value*increased in Addison's, autoimmune collagen disorder, chronic infection, Chron's; decreased in conditions such as burns, cirrhosis, edema, and severe hepatic disease 6.0-8.0 g/dL
formed as the purines adenine and guanine; metabolized continuously during formation and degradation of DNA and RNA; formed from the metabolism of dietary purines URIC ACID
normal uric acid value*elevated amount deposit in joints and soft tissues and causes gout; and can precipitate into urate stones in the kidneys*slowed renal excretion can cause hyperuricemia 4.5-8 mg/dL male2.5-6.2 mg/dL female
a monosaccharide found in fruits; formed from digestion of carbohydraes and conversion of glycogen by the liver; main source of cellular energy and essential for brain and erythrocyte fx GLUCOSE
normal fasting blood glucose level*used to help diagnos DM and hypoglycemia 70-110 mg/dL
aids in diagnosis of DM; if glucose levels peak at higher than normal at 1-2 hrs after injection/ingestion of glucose and are slower to return to fasting levels- DM is confirmed GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TESTbaseline fasting 70-110 mg/dL30-min fasting 110-170 mg/dL60-min fasting 120-170 mg/dL90-min fasting 100-140 mg/dL120-min fasting 70-120 mg/dL
normal glucose 2-hr postprandial <140 mg/dL
normal glucose monitoring (cap) 60-110 mg/dL
blood glucose bound to Hgb GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN
reflection of how well blood glucose levels have been controlled for the past 3-4 months HEMOGLOBIN A1C (HbA1c)
normal HbA1c value*as precentage of total hemoglobin diabetics with:good control 7% or lowerfair control 7-8%poor control higher than 8%
reflects average serum glucose levels over 2-3 weeks; more sensitive to recent changes than HbA1c GLYCOSYLATED SERUM ALBUMIN (FRUCTOSAMINE)
normal fructosamine levels nondiabetic: 1.5-2.7 mmol/Ldiabetic: 2.0-5.0 mmol/L
specific indicator of renal function; increased levels indicate slowing of GFR CREATININE
normal creatinine value 0.6-1.3 mg/dL
the nitrogen portion of urea BUN
normal BUN value 8-25 mg/dL
substance formed in the liver through an enzymatic protein breakdown process; normally filtered through the renal golmeruli with a small amount of reabsorbed in thr tubules, and the rest in the urine UREA
cation abdorbed into the bloodstream from dietary sources; functions in bone formation, nerve impulse transmission,a nd contraction of myocardial and skeletal muscles; aids in blood clotting (converts PT to thrombin) CALCIUM
normal calcium value 8.6-10 mg/dL
used as an index to determine metabolic activity and renal fx; needed in blood-clotting mechanism, reglulates neuromuscular activity; calcium metabolism MAGNESIUM
normal magnesium level 1.6-2.6 mg/dL
important in bone formation, nergy storage and release, urinary acid-base buffering, carb metabolism; PHOSPHORUS
normaal phosphorus value 2.7-4.5 mg/dL
normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)value 0.2-5.4 microunits/mL
normal thyroxine (T4) value 5.0-12.0 mcg/dL
normal free thyroxine (FT4) value 0.8-2.4 ng/dL
normal triiodothyronine (T3) value 80-230 ng/dL
functions in the immune defense system of the body; assesses leukocyte distribution WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBC)
normal WBC count 4,500-11,000 cells/mm3
means an increased number of immature neutrophils is present in the blood "SHIFT TO THE LEFT"
means that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments; found in liver disease, Down syndrome, or megaloblastic and pernicious anemia "SHIFT TO THE RIGHT"
tests include radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and microparticle enzyme immunoassay; serological tests for specific MARKERS HEPATITIS
tests to diagnose include ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
cell count monitors progression of HIV; decreases as the disease progresses CD4+T cell COUNTS
normal CD4+T-cell count 500-1600 cell/L*immune system is healthy with >500 cells/Lproblems occur with 200-499 cells/Lsevere immune system problems with <200 cells/L
ratio monitors progression of disease; normal ratio is 2:1 CD4-to-CD8 ratio
Created by: roxanneramirez