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Physiology Chapter 5

Cell Respiration and Metabolism

What 2 categories is metabolism divided into? Catabolism and Anabolism
What type of metabolism breaks down molecules and releases energy and is the primary source of energy for making ATP? Catabolism
What type of metabolism makes larger molecules and requires energy and is also the source of the body's large energy storage compounds? Anabolism
All reactions in the body that involve energy transformation is call what? Metabolism
The metabolic pathway by which glucose is converted into 2 pyruvic acid and does NOT require oxygen? Glycolysis
Where does phosphorylation trap glucose? Inside the cell
Glycolysis is exergonic and produces what 2 products? Net 2 ATP's and 2 NADH's
In glycolysis _____ ATP are added and _____are produced for a net gain of _____ ATP. 2/4/2
What organs store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen? Liver, skeletal muscles and heart
What muscles use trapped glucose-6-phosphate for its own energy needs? Skeletal muscles
What is the only organ that has glucose-6-phosphatase that removes the phosphate group so that it can secrete free glucose into the blood? Liver
In the Cori Cycle the production of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules, including lactic acid, amino acids, and glyceral (occurs primarily in the liver) is called what? Gluconeogenesis
What process begins when pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis enters the mitochondria? Aerobic respiration
When does aerobic respiration begin? When pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis enters the mitochondria
In aerobic respiration CO2 is clipped off pyruvic acid forming what? Acetyl CoA (coenzyme A is a carrier for acetic acid)
During the Krebs cycle, in a series of reaction what is converted back to oxaloacetic acid to complete the pathway? Citric acid
What does the Kreb Cycle produce in one cycle? 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
What do you call a linked series of proteins on the cristae of the mitrochondria? Electron transport chain
Energy that is used to take ADP and make ATP is called what? Oxidative phosphorylation
What are 2 ways ATP is made? Direct phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
What cells don't have a mitochondria and therefore use only the lactic acid pathway? RBCs
Where does glycolysis take place? Cytoplasm
Where does the krebs cycle take place? Mitochondria
What 2 things does the Krebs cycle begin with and what do they form? Acetyle CoA combining with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid
What does the Krebs cycle produce? 1 GTP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH
The ETC is a linked series of proteins located where in the cell? Cristae of the mitochondria
What are the proteins that are found on the cristae of the mitochondria in the ETC? FMN, coenzyme Q, and cytochromes
What comes from the Krebs cycle and carries electrons to the ETC? NADH AND FADH2
Where is most of the ATP produced? In the ETC of the mitochondria
What is the net production of ATP from glycolysis to the ETC? 26 ATP produced in ETC, 2 from glycolysis, 2 from direct phosphorylation in Krebs For a total of 30 ATPs for each glucose
What is it called when ATP is formed when bonds are weak? Direct phosphorylation
Through what process is ATP formed in glycolysis and Krebs? Direct phosphorylation
Through what process is ATP formed in the ETC? Oxidative phosphorylation in Krebs
Direct phosphorylation is the formation of ATP during what cycles of metabolism? Glycolysis and Krebs
When FAD and NAD are reduced they become what? FADH2 and NADH
Created by: seshelby62