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Human Growth

chapter 5-6

From ages 2-6 – healthy child gains--- with a steady increase in weight and height. 3 inches and 4 1/2 pounds per year.
Most influential factors of height and weight: Heredity, health care, and nutrition
-- process in which axons are covered with a layer of fat cells it increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system Myelination
Brain is 75% of its adult weight by , by age-- 90%. 100% of adult weight by , but weight is 1/3 of adult by age 2 by age 5 by age 7
the 3 ways to prevent obesity in children 1.Food to satsify hunger and meet nutrition. 2.Snack low fat snacks smiple salt & sugar high fiber. 3.Child life surround by Daily physical activity
Leading Causes of Death in Young Children in the U.S Accidents are the leading cause of death motor vehicle accidents,drowning,falls and poisoning
Piaget’s 2nd stage Cognitive Development- Preoperational sta
-- inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s Egocentrism
-- belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities and are capable of action Animism
-- centering of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others. Centration
is most clearly evidenced in young children’s lack of conservation Conservation.
the awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties Conservation.
social constructivist approach Vygotsky
emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction Vygotsky's social constructivist approach
What are Vygotsky's social constructivist approach? ZPD zone of Proximal development, theory of mind, Phonlogy, morphology, semantics, and syntax pragmatics and project head start.
range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults Zpd or zone of proximal development.
children use language to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior According Vygotsky's 1962
language for self-regulation is called private speech Private Speech
for ----, private speech is egocentric and immature Piaget
for ----, Private speech is an important tool of thought during the early childhood years Vygotsky
---- emphasis importance of inner speech Vygotsky's
--- view that such speech is immature Piaget's
1.Awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others view 2.the child as “a thinker who is trying to explain, predict, and understand people’s though, feelings. 3.Children’s theory of mind changes as they develop childhood. Theory of Mind
-- the sound system of a language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined Phonology
-- the units of meaning involved in word formation such as noun, verb, plural and so on Morphology
S -- the aspect of language that involves the meaning of words and sentences Semantics
-- the appropriate use of language in different context Pragmatics
-- program designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school Project head start
strong emphasis, social constructivist, no general stages of develop proposed,zpd, language, dialogue, tools of the culture language major role, education central role in children, children learn with teachers. Vygotsky's theory
Little emphasis, cognitive constructivist, strong emphasis on stages, Assimilation, accommodation, operations, conservation,classification, hypothetical deductive reasoning, language minimal role and education merely refines and children explore world. Piaget's theory
Erikson’s third stage: Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative Vs. Guilt.
governor of initiative is --- conscience.
---- leads not only to rewards but also guilt, which lowers self-esteem Initative
-- representation of self / self-conceptions Self- understanding
--see self by material characteristics, such as size, shape, and color Young children
At age --- they include psychological traits and emotion terms ( At age 4 to 5
monitor child’s emotions, view child’s negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions Emotion coaching parents.
--- view role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions Emotion dismissing parents.
Freudian theory, superego ----- The moral element of persnality
development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do with other people Moral development
-- responding to another person’s feelings with an emotion that echoes the other’s feelings Empathy
-- contrasting roles of women and men domesticity to power Social role theory
-- view -- preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent Psychoanalytic theory of gender( Freud's view)
Oedipus (for ----) or Electra (for --) complex Boys and girls
-- by observing and imitating and through being rewarded and punished Social Cognitive theory of gender.
-- organizes the world in terms of female and male Gender Schema
Diana Baumrind (1971) has described four types of parenting styles what are they? 1.authoritarian parenting. 2.authoritative parenting. 3.neglectful parenting. 4.indulgent parenting.
-- restrictive, punitive style demanding obedience and respect authoritarian parenting.
-- encourages independence but still places limits and controls authoritative parenting.
-- parent is very uninvolved in the child's life neglectful parenting
-- highly involved with but place few demands or controls indulgent parenting.
4 Reasons to Avoid Physical Punishment 1.Parents who spank present children with an out-of-control model which the children may then imitate 2.Punishment can instill fear, rage, or avoidance in children 3.punch tells the child what not to do than what to do 4.Punishment can be abusive
Four types of Child Maltreatment 1.Physical abuse 2.sexual abuse 3.child neglect 4.Emotional abuse
the infliction of physical injury Physical abuse
failure to provide for the child’s basic needs Child neglect
fondling a child’s genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, etc. Sexual abuse
psychological/verbal abuse/mental injury acts/omissions that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems Emotional abuse
Prevention of Maltreatment are 2 types 1. Home visitation in improvement of parenting 2. Parent and child psychotherapy treatment.
3 Characteristics of Sibling Relationships 1.Emotional quality of the relationship 2.Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship 3.Variation in sibling relationships
Consequences of Corporal Punishment 1.increased aggression 2.lower levels of internalization 3.Mental health 4. more adjustment problems
Four types of play. 1.sensorimotor and practice play 2.pretense/symbolic play 3.social play 4.constructive play
Created by: sam08