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Physiology Chapter 3

Cell Cycle

Most cells in the body are in what phase of the cell cycle? Interphase
What is the non-dividing stage of the cell cycle? Interphase
Interphase is subdivided into what 3 stages? G1, S, G2
What are proteins that promote different phases of the cell cycle? Cyclins
Overactivity of genes that code for cyclins are associated with what disease? Cancer
Genes whose mutations are associated with cancer are called what? Oncogenes
What genes inhibit cancer development? Tumor suppressor genes
What tumor suppressor gene encodes a transcription factor that halts cell division when DNA is damaged? p53
Programmed cell death is refered to as what? Apoptosis
Mutation in p53 are found in what percentage of all cancers? 50%
In what 2 ways can cell death occur? Necrosis or apoptosis
What type of cell death occurs when pathological changes kills a cell? Necrosis
What type of cell death occurs as a normal physiological response? Apoptosis
What type of cell death involves activation of cytoplasmic caspases, which leads to cell death? Apoptosis
The phase in life when the cell divides is called what? Mitosis
During mitosis what are condensed and duplicated? Chromosomes
Chromosomes consist of 2 duplicate strands of __________ which are connected by _________. Chromatids/centromere
Mitosis consists of what 4 stages? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase
In what stage of mitosis do the chromosomes become visible distinct structures? Prophase
In what stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up single file along the equator and are positioned there by spindle fibers? Metaphase
During what stage of mitosis do the centromeres split and the spindle fibers pull each chromatid to opposite poles? Anaphase
During what phase of mitosis does the cytoplasm divide producing 2 daughter cells? Telephase
What is the term for when the cytoplasm divides during telephase? Cytokinesis
Centrosome contain 2 what? Centrioles
During what stage of interphase do the centrosome duplicated if the cell is going to divide? G1
All animal cells have a centrosome located near the nucleus in what phase? Interphase
Microtubules grow from centrosomes to form what? Spindle fibers
What do the spindle fibers that grow from the centrosomes attatch to during mitosis? The centromeres of the chromosomes
What are the non-coding regions of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes called? Telomeres
What is the M stage of the cell cycle called? Mitosis
Centrosomes replicates itself during what phase? Interphase
The two identical centrosomes move away from each other during what phase of mitosis? Prophase
Each time a cell divides, a length of ________is lost because DNA polymerase can't copy the very end of the DNA strand Telemeres
What type of cell division occurs in the ovaries and testes to produce gametes? Meiosis
In what type of cell division is there 2 divisional sequences in which the DNA is replicated once and divided twice? Meiosis
During the 1st division of meiosis, what type of chromosome pair along the equator of the cell? Homologous Chromosomes
After the 1st division of meiosis each daughter cell has how many differnt chromosomes consisting of how many chromatids? 23/2
How is genetic recombination achieved? Crossing over of the tetrads
When does crossing over occur? During prophase 1
The cytoplasm divides to produce two haploid cells during what phase of meiosis? Telephase I
What type of inheritance occurs when gene silencing is passed on to the daughter cells? Epigenetic inheritance
Created by: seshelby62