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A&P 1

Anything that takes up space and has mass Matter
A substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties Elememt
Smallest particle of an element that displays properties of the element Atom
The ability and capacity to do work Energy
Potential energy Stored energy, the capacity to do work
Kinetic energy energy of motion, the process of doing work
Energy is neither created or destroyed, but can be converted in forms 1st law of thermodynamics
with each energy conversion, there is a loss of energy as entropy 2nd law of thermodynamics
burning of a match chemical energy to light and heat energy
gasoline motor chemical energy to mechanical energy
Electrical light bulbs electrical energy to light energy
Cellular respiration chemical energy of glucose to chemical energy of ATP and heat
Number of protons in an atom atomic number
number of protons and neutrons in an atom atomic mass
Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus a different atomic weight isotopes
Heavier isotopes of many elements are unstable, and their atoms decompose spntaneously into more forms Radioativity
Utilized for biological research and medicine Radioisotopes
Electron orbitals have different amounts of potential energy
union of 2 or more atoms of the same element, also the smallest part of a compund that still has properties of that compund molecules
Substances having 2 or more different elements united chemicaly in a fixed ratio compound
made up of a solvent(liquid that dissolves) and a solute (dissolved substance) solutions
large solute particles that tend to stay relativley dispersed` colloids
large sollute particles that tend to settle out unless mixed suspensions
When this occurs electrons shift in their relationship with one anotherand energy may be given off or absorbed chemical reaction
result when electrons are transferred or shared from one atom to another Chemical bonds
valence shells are not complete, do not readily react with other chemicals inert elements
formed when electrons are TRANSFERRED from one atom to another ionic bond
charged particles that carry a + or - charge ions
results when two atoms SHARE electrons in such away that each atom has a complete outer shell covlent bonding
Unique properties of water High heat capacity, high heat of vaporization
The polarity of h2o molecules cause ionic and other polar molecules to disolve Universal solvent
The UNEQUAL sharing of electrons Polar covalent bonding
the relativley EQUAL sharing of electrons Nonpolar covalent bonding
occurs between a slightly positive H atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another moleccule Hydrogen bonding
pH stands for percent hydrogen ions
Molecules that dissocaite in water releasing H+ ions. Less than 7 Acids
Molecules that dissociate in water releasing hydroxyl. more than 7 Bases or alkalines
pure water or a ph of 7 Neutral
NaOH sodium hydroxide
HCl Hydrochloric Acid
Chemicals or combinations of chemicals that take up excess H+ or OH- and keep the pH within normal limits Buffers
C based molcules that always contain H, bonding with N, O, and sometimes P and S Organic Chemistry
usually contain + and - ions, usually ionic bonding, always small molecules associated with nonliving matter Inorganic Molecules
Always contain C and H, associated with LIVING matter Organic molecules
molecules that have identical molecular molecular formulas but are different becuase the atoms are arranged differently isomers
simple building blocks of large, organic molecules monomers
large molecules composed of 2 or more monomers Polymers
Functions: energy and energy storage, sometimes cell structural materials Carbohydrates
Blood sugar Glucose
Fruit sugar frutose
milk sugar galactose
table sugar sucrose
milk sugar lactose
grain sugar maltose
long polymers of monosaccharides. Functions are energy storage and structural components polysaccharides
glucose storage for plants starch
glucose storgae for animals glycogen
Functions in plant cell wall strength, the most abundant organic compound on earth cellulose
c chains filled, saturated, usually solid at rom temperature animal fats
c chains not filled, unsaturated, usually liquid at room temperature vegetable fats
solid at room temperature, waterproof, and resistant to degredation waxes
in place of the third fatty acid, there is a phosphate group phospholipids
controls metabolism of the cell steroids
biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction enzymes
nucleotides(nitrogen bases, pentose sugars, phosphates) monomers
DNA, RNA, and ATP polymers
all cells are bound by this structure, also called the cell membrane plasma membrane
extend into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails and are finally embeded integral proteins
proteins with carbohydrate groups attached to the ends glycoproteins
cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus cytoplasm
viscous, semitransparent fluid cytosol
metabolic machinery of the cell organelles
chemical substances that may or may not be present inclusions
a double membrane organelle, cristae and matrix, that breaks down carbohydrates to ATP, the energy current of the cellFunction- conversion of chemical energy of food to the chemical energy of ATP. BREAKS DOWN CARBS Mitochondira
found both in prokaryote and eukaryote cells, and may be found free in the cytoplasm, or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Small, dark staining structures composed of proteins and RNA. Functions in protein synthesis. Ribosomes
an extensive network of double membranes, enclosing fluid-filled cavities called cisternae, highly variable and physically continuous in the nucleus. Functions- synthesis, modification and transport of certain materials Endoplasmic reticulum
consists of stacked and flattened membranous sacs, shaped like hollow dinner plates. Functions- modify, concentrate and package proteins and lipids made by the rough er golgi Apparatus
Disintergrator bodies, spherical membranous organelles containing digestive enzymes. Functions- digesting particles, degrading worn out organelles, metabolic functions, "eat everything" Lysosomes
a system of organelles that function collectivley toproduce store and export biological molecules, degrade potentially harmful substances Endomembrane systems
membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes such as oxidases and catalases peroxisomes
supporting cellular structures and genertates cell movement. Cytoskeleton(Cell skeleton)
Transport without energy passive transport
transport with energy active transport
transporting things out of the cell exocytosis
transporting into the cell endocytosis
englufing things in the cell phagocytosis
1. the cell is the basic structural and functional unit og living organisms2. the activity of an organism depends on the collective activites of its cell3. "principle complimentarity" a cells shape reflects its function.4 Continuityoflifeisbasedon Cell theory