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Microbiology Quiz 4

What acid is unique to mycobacteria? mycolic acid (remember iconazid targets)
Can you culture m. leprae? no.
What type of granuloma are TB associated with? caseating granuloma (center collapses, looks dead) Also Ghon complexes.
Name the 5 members of the mycobacterium complex 1) M. tuberculosis 2) M. bovis 3) BCG 4) M. cannetti 5) M. africanum
What is the BCG vaccine made from? M. Bovis.
another name for leprosy? Hansen's disease
2 forms of leprosy. 1) extreme tuberculoid-not lots of bacteria (t mediated), non-caseating granuloma 2) lepromatous-tons of bacteria (humoral), sheets of foamy macrophages. raised skin.
Standard treatment for TB "RIPE" Rifampin Isoniazid Pyrazinamide ethambutol
does gram stain work for fungi? not for most. Instead to NaOH wet mount or PAS/Gomori stains.
what is the most important kind of immunity against fungi? cell mediated.
What is the most common infection caused by Candida? diaper dermatitis (also see thrush--common in babies, cancer patients, AIDS patients) Also vaginitis is common.
where does candida normally reside? not in nature--endogenous, in host.
How do you know you have candida albicans? forms germ tubes from yeast in serum at 37 degrees within 1 hour. (this is hyphal form) "rapid germ tube"
What allows hyphae to become covalently attached to host cells? Hwp1 (can cause the white patches seen with thrus-tight adhesion of cadndia)
What is the 2nd most common candida species? glabrata. (note glabrata is less susceptible to azoles/amphotericin B then albicans is)
What is the environmental and tissue forms in primary fungal pathogens? environmental is hyphae tissue is yeast
are primary fungal pathogens transmitted from person to person? no
Does histoplasma capsulatum have a capsule? no
Where is histoplasma capsulatum located geographically? Ohio River Valley (soil, bat guano)
What is special about histoplasma capsulatum's morphology? tuberculate chlamydospores (macroconidia) "spikes" (hyphael form)--yeast are small.
How do we get histoplasma capsulatum? inhaled from environment into lungs. Can be asymptomatic, acute pulmonary, chronic pulmonary or disseminated. (dissemination=carried by macrophages-can see in blood culture)
What is a sign of disseminated histoplasma capsulatum infection? skin lesion (coming from the inside)
What are 3 virulence factors for hitoplasma capsulatum? 1) Calcium binding protein-yeast phase 2) modulate ph of lysosome. 3) mask beta 1, 3 glucan with alpha glucan-hide from host defenses.
How is geography of fungus determined? skin test
What is special about fungal pathogens growth in lab? Can grow at 37 degrees. Most fungus can't.
What fungal disease are dogs susceptible to? blastomyces dermatitidis
Key morphologic feature of blastomyces dermatitidis? yeast form-buds have a broad base.
What two organs do blastomyces dermatitidis have a tropism for? skin and bone (inhaled and starts in respiratory)
What surface protein is required for virulence with blastomyces dermatitids? Bad1 (promotes uptake by macrophages)
Geographic distribution of blastomyces dermatitidis? Mississippi River Basin-wooded areas near waterways.
Treatment for blastomyces dermatitids? Treatment recommended for all, amphotericin B
What is the geographic distribution of coccidioidomycosis? Southwestern US
What is morphology of coccidioidomycosis? hyphal form is barrel shaped with thin structure between-easy to come apart. yeast-see spherule with endospores (can see granulomas around spherules)
What does disease with coccidiomycosis look like? can be chronic or acute-affect skin, bone, meninges
what is the only fungus with a capsule? What is capsule made of? cryptococcus neoformans (note it is also monomorphic--not dimorphic) Capsule made of GXM.
What kind of disease does type A cryptococcus neoformans lead to? meningitis (can also see growth in lung) Good growth in CNS where there are catecholamines so cryptococcus can make melanin, be protected from host defense.
What two special things can cryptococcus neoformans make (other than capsule?) 1)melanin-help with protection 2) urease (note h.pylori and proteus can also make)
Therapy for cryptococcus neoformans? amphotericin B and 5-fluorocysteine for 6-10 weeks.
What is the most prevelent airborne fungal pathogen? aspergillus (neutropenic hospitalized patients are at high risk) Very high mortality rate.
Morphology of aspergillus? hyphael form only, highly sporulating--only inhalation form. Septate, branching at acute angles. Hyphae organized in same direction.
Treatment of aspergilus? amphotericin B.
How are zygomycetes similar to aspergillus? (3 ways) 1) ubiquitous 2) opportunistic 3) only hyphael growth form
How is mucor different than aspergillus? affinity for face, no septa. Common in diabetics.
Can pneumocystis be cultured? no (also no ergosterol). Confusion about if it was a parasite or a fungus. Leads to interstital pneumonia. See cysts in tissue. Treat with trimethoprim.
3 examples of subcutaneous mycoses 1) sporothrix schenkii-thermal dimorphism 2) chromoblastomycosis-soil, splinters. Single lesion, slow growth. Sclerotic cells-cause granulomas. 3)mycetoma-introduced by trauma can be caused by either fungus or bacteria. Granuloma reaction
3 examples of dermatophytes (fungal infections of skin, hair, nails) 1) epidermophyton 2) microsporum 3) tricophyton
What is a tinnea? also called ringworm, meant to discuss infections with dermatophytes.
How do dermatophytes grow? as molds (can get as direct contacts from soil, animals, other people)
Created by: act99