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What is the formula for O2 content? ([Hgb]x1.34)xSaO2 + PaO2 x 0.003
How do CN and Co inhibit oxidative phosphorylation? inhibition of cytochrome oxidase (complex IV)
How do Amobarbital and Rotenone inhibit oxidative phosphorylatioN? inhibit NADH dehydrogenase (complex I)
How does Antimycin A inhibit oxidative phosphorylation? inhibits cytochrome reductase (complex III)
How does diptheria cause fatty change in the heart? inhibits beta-oxidation of FA
What is the function of the BCL-2 gene? inhibits apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial leakage of cytochrome c
What does the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis require? FAS (TNF family)
How does tp53 promote apoptosis? if damage is too great, activates BAX which INactivates Bcl2
What are the neutrophilic adhesion molecules? beta-integrins (CD11a:CD18)
What factors are chemotactic for neutrophils? C5a, LTB4, IL8
Which mediators produce fever? PGE2, IL1, TNF
How does coagulase aid S. aureus? cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin and traps bacteria and neutrophils
What glycoprotein is required for granulation tissue formation? fibronectin (binds to collagen, fibrin, integrins)
What factors are essential to angiogenesis? VEGF and FGF
What are the clinical findings of mercury poisoning? diarrhea, constricted visual fields, nephrotoxicity in proximal tubules, tachycardia, hyperhidrosis, peripheral neuropathy, HTN
What is the pathophysiology a wet drowning? aspiration of water, water reabsorbed, plasma diluted, hyponatremia and hypokalemia cause v fib
What is the term for nonneoplastic normal tissue in a foreign location? choristoma (heterotopic rest)
What is the first step in the sequence of invasion by malignant tumors? loss of E-cadherin
How does TGF-beta act as a tumor suppressor? inhibits G1 to S phase
What causes hypoglycemia in HCC? insulin like factor (ectopic secretion)
How does choriocarcinoma of the testis cause gynecomastia? hcG release
What process(es) cause uterine enlargement in pregnancy? hypertrophy and hyperplasia
What causes eosinophilia in coagulation necrosis? protein denaturation and loss of cytoplasmic RNA
Describe the events of cytotoxic T cell activation. activation of caspases by granzyme B which is allowed entry be perforin
What enzyme crosslinks apoptotic cytoplasmic proteins and creates the cellular blebs? transglutaminases
What causes the fatty change in the liver associated with incr alcohol intake? excess NADH, production of G3P and TGs, decr beta-oxidation of FAs
Where are L-selections found? neutrophils; bind to endothelial mucin-like molecules as GlyCam-L
What is the function of platelet-activating factor? activates and aggregates platelets with release of histamine and serotonin, chemotactic for eosinophils
How do C3a and C5a act as anaphylatoxins? mediate degranulation of basophils and mast cells with release of histamine; C5a is chemotactic, mediates the release of histamine from platelet-dense granules
What causes LAD deficiency type I? deficiency of beta2 integrins (CD11a/CD18)
What causes LAD deficiency type II? deficiency of selectins that binds neutrophils (Sialy-Lewis X)
What receptors mediate diapedesis of leukocytes? PECAM-1
Deposition of what protein causes senile cardiac amyloidosis? transthyretin
tumor suppressor and gene associated with melanoma p16 on chromosome 9p
Describe some adverse effects of Arsenic exposure. inhibits enzymes that require lipoic acid as a cofactor (pyruvate dehydrogenase) - lactic acidosis, diarrhea, convulsions; SCC of skin, liver angiosarcoma
What disorders are PSaMMoma bodies found in? Papillary (thyroid) CA, Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary, Meningioma, Mesothelioma
in what type of hyperlipoproteinemia are eruptive xanthomas found? type IV: increased VLDL
which type of hyperlipoproteinemia causes palmar xanthomas? Type III: deficient apoE
What is the treatment for abetalipoproteinemia vit E
What other murmur is associated with aortic regurgitation? Austin flint murmur (diastolic, blood drips back onto ant. mitral valve leaflet)
What are pANCA Ab directed against? Disease associatioN? myeloperoxidase, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg Strauss syndrome
What causes "copper wiring" in hypertensive retinopathy? sclerotic vessel changes, wider light reflex
What causes "AV nicking" in hypertensive retinopathy? arterioles thick and create depression in vein as the pass over them
Created by: ash0403