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Study for Science finals for 7th grade science

organism a “living thing” that has all the characteristics of life
cell smallest living part of an organism that can live by itself
stimulus anything an organism responds to (bright light, hunger, danger, etc.)
response the reaction an organism has to stimulus (close its eyes, eat food, run away, etc.)
adaptation specialized changes in an organism that evolve over many generations to help the organism survive
homeostasis responses an organism does to keep its inside environment stable (“home stays nice”)
development physical changes in an organism over its life
life span time from birth to death for an organism
dormant adjective to describe an organism whose life processes have slowed almost to a stop while it waits for better living conditions
quantitative observation careful study and description of something using numbers and measurements
Artemia scientific name for small salt water crustaceans commonly called brine shrimp
cyst dry, dormant egg of a brine shrimp
salinity adjective to describe how concentrated salt is in salt water
compound light microscope a tool that uses two or more lenses to magnify small objects
temporary wet mount slide a slide made using a drop of water and a cover slip to view a specimen
magnification visual enlargement of an image using lenses or other technology
field of view how large of an area you can see across when looking at something through a microscope
depth of field how far into the “layers” you can see when looking at something through a microscope
“total magnification” of a compound microscope how much overall enlargement of the image you get when looking through the two lenses of a compound
microscope stain chemical added to the specimen on a microscope slide to darken the specimen and make it easier to see
specimen word used to name any object being studied under the microscope
Table a neatly organized display of numbers or words organized into columns and rows
Diagram a neat drawing or photo showing the parts of something with labels and/or written explanations
Graph a visual display of data, usually showing how one variable relates to another; for example a line graph, a scatter plot, or a bar chart
Structure the shape and parts of something and how they’re put together
Function the job something does and how it works
Organelle tiny structure inside a cell that carries out a specialized function (etymology: organ + elle = tiny)
Nucleus organelle that contains all the instructions for how to run a cell
Cell Membrane organelle that is the outer boundary of a cell and which only lets certain things in and out
Cytoplasm the liquid filling of a cell in which all of the organelles float (ety: cyto = cell, plasm = jelly)
Mitochondrion organelle that chemically reacts oxygen with sugars to release energy, carbon dioxide, and water
Ribosome organelle that makes proteins for the cell
Golgi body organelle that packages proteins inside membranes so they can be sent elsewhere
Endoplasmic reticulum organelle that is a folded membrane used to movematerials around inside the cell (ety: endo = inside, plasm = jelly, reticu = network)
Lysosome organelle that breaks down and gets rid of waste (ety: lyso = cleaning, some = body)
Vacuole organelle that stores materials inside the cell (ety: vacu = empty)
Chloroplast organelle in a plant that uses sunlight energy to chemically react carbon dioxide with water to produce sugars and oxygen (ety: chloro = colored + plast = body)
Cell wall organelle in a plant or bacterium that is outside the cell and gives rigid support and shape to the cell
Etymology the history of a word (language of origin and meanings of root parts of the word)
chemistry the study of matter and the changes that take place within matter
particle an organized piece of matter that is a small piece of something larger
molecule the smallest piece of a compound
compound a pure substance made from atoms of two or more types of elements chemically combined
atom the smallest piece of an element
element a pure substance made of only one type of atom
subatomic particles the building-blocks of atoms
nucleus the center of an atom, made of protons and neutrons
proton part of the nucleus of an atom that has a positive charge
neutron part of the nucleus of an atom that has a neutral charge
electron part of an atom “orbiting” the nucleus, it has a negative charge
Periodic Table of Elements organized display of chemical elements telling useful information about each element
atomic number the number of protons in an element (and the normal number of electrons)
chemical symbol the short-hand abbreviation of an element
chemical name the full name of an element
atomic weight the mass of one mole of an element, equal to the total number of protons plus neutrons in one atom
mole a very large number: 6.02 x 1023, which is used to count very small things such as atoms and molecules
biological molecules the four basic building blocks of living things: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
carbohydrate biological molecule that is the main chemical used to release energy in mitochondria
lipid biological molecule that is used to make cell membranes and for storage of chemical energy
protein biological molecule that is used to build cell parts and to do jobs for the cell
nucleic acid biological molecule that stores the codes for how to make and run the cell
chemical indicator a liquid that changes color or appearance when mixed with certain substances
chemical reaction when atoms or molecules are combined and new substances are produced and energy is released or absorbed in the process
chemical formula the abbreviated way of writing the name of a substance (ex. water is H2O) to show what elements are in it and how many atoms of each
chemical bonds connection that holds atoms together to form molecules; the connection is made when atoms share or steal electrons
chemical equation the abbreviated way of writing a chemical reaction
reactants the substances at the start of a chemical reaction (the left side of a chemical equation)
products the substances at the end of a chemical reaction (the right side of a chemical equation)
energy the ability to do work, comes in different forms: heat, light, motion, etc.
calorie a measurement of energy in the form of heat given off (as when something is burned or when energy is released from food)
metabolism all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism autotrophs organisms that make food for themselves (ety: auto = self, troph = feeding), also called producers
heterotroph organisms that must eat to get energy (ety: hetero = other, troph = feeding), also called consumers
photosynthesis chemical reaction that takes place in the chloroplasts of producers to produce sugars as a food source (ety: photo = light, synthesis = making food from)
chlorophyll the pigment in plants that gives them their green color and which is used in photosynthesis
respiration chemical reaction that takes place in the mitochondria of both consumers and producers which releases the energy trapped in sugars (ety: “breathing” of cells as they take in oxygen)
-> the “yields” sign in a chemical equation...points to what new substances will be made in the reaction
Δ the “delta” sign in a chemical equation…means “change in” whatever is being talked about
cell cycle all the stages a cell goes through including phases of growth, preparation for division, and division
interphase part of a cell’s life cycle when it is living, growing, and getting ready to divide
mitosis process of cell division that starts with one cell which divides once to make two identical daughter cells; a type of asexual reproduction
chromosome what DNA is called during mitosis…DNA is wound up and easily visible
daughter cells name for cells at the end of cell division
asexual reproduction process of creating offspring or daughter cells using DNA from only one parent, and the resulting offspring or daughter cells are identical to the parent
offspring science term for children (relative to their parents)
fission type of asexual reproduction where an organism divides into two equal parts (the way bacteria reproduce)
budding type of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from the body of the parent organism (hydra is an example)
regeneration type of asexual reproduction where a whole new organism grows from a piece of another organism (planarian worm is an example)
diploid adjective to describe a cell that has a set of matching chromosomes from each parent (46 chromosomes in a human, 23 from mom and 23 from dad)
sexual reproduction process of creating offspring by combining the DNA in gametes from two parents, and the resulting offspring are different than either parent
gamete general name for a sex cell
sperm name for a male sex cell
egg name for a female sex cell
haploid adjective to describe a cell that has half the normal number of chromosomes (one copy of each chromosome – usually a gamete)
fertilization process of sperm and egg joining
zygote the name for a fertilized egg before it starts doing mitosis
meiosis process of cell division that starts with one cell and divides twice to make four gametes, each with shuffled DNA
crossing over the “shuffling” of DNA that happens during meiosis
sex chromosomes the 23rd chromosome pair that makes the difference between males and females, XX for females, XY for males
DNA molecule in the nucleus of a cell that contains instructions for how to make proteins (and how to run the cell) (DNA is the abbreviation for Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)
double helix a twisted spiral staircase…the shape of DNA
nitrogen bases (nucleotides) molecules that make up the “steps” in the DNA “ladder;” there are four: adenine paired with thymine, and cytosine paired with guanine
triplet a group of three nitrogen bases that are the code for a specific amino acid
gene a sequence of triplets which all together are the code for one protein
mutation a permanent change in a gene that causes a protein to be made incorrectly
genome all the DNA in the nucleus of an organism’s cell(s) genetics the study of how traits are inherited
heredity passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait a characteristic that is caused by genes
allele different versions of a gene that cause the variations of a trait
dominant the form of a gene that covers up (dominates) the weaker form of the gene
recessive the form of a gene that gets covered up if the dominant form of the gene is present
Punnett Square a tool to predict possible offspring’s genes based on parents’ genes (invented by Reginald Punnett 50 years after Mendel’s studies)
homozygous when both alleles in a pair are the same (both dominant or both recessive)
heterozygous when the two alleles in a pair are different (one is dominant and one is recessive)
genotype a pair of capital and/or lower case letters to represent an organism’s genetic makeup
phenotype the physical trait that shows up because of an organism’s genotype
probability a measurement of the chance (likelihood) of an event happening
independent when the chance of one event happening does not affect the chance of another event happening
species a group of organisms that can successfully reproduce with each other
evolution the slow inherited change of a species over many many generations
natural selection Darwin’s explanation of how evolution happens based on four ideas: overproduction, variation, adaptation, and spread of successful variations
variation differences in inherited an inherited trait among members of a species
adaptation a variation that helps an organism to survive better than an organism without the variation
gradualism explanation of how fast evolution happens and how new species evolve; gradualism says new species evolve slowly by gradual change
punctuated equilibrium explanation of how fast evolution happens and how new species evolve; punctuated equilibrium says new species evolve “quickly” due to small genetic mutations and/or rapid environmental change, then stay the same for long periods of time
classify to put things into groups based on similarities
taxonomy the science of classifying and naming organisms
binomial nomenclature the “two-name naming-system” used in science to descriptively name organisms using Latin and Greek, invented by Linnaeus
dichotomous key “two choice” method of finding the name of an organism, comes in two forms: list and branching tree
common name the name people call an organism on an every-day basis…the name varies based on where you live
scientific name the name used by scientists to refer to an organism using binomial nomenclature
field guide a book with descriptions, pictures/diagrams, and dichotomous keys used to identify organisms
phylogeny the evolutionary history of an organism
locomotion moving from place to place
cilia hair-like structures that wave in the water (a type of protist locomotion)
flagellum whip-like tail that waves in the water (a type of protist locomotion)
pseudopod “false foot,” a blob-like extension of the cell membrane and cytoplasm of a cell (a type of protist locomotion)
producer organism in an ecosystem who makes its own food
consumer organism in an ecosystem who has to eat other organisms
decomposer a type of consumer in an ecosystem that gets its food by eating dead or decaying materials
scientific method organized process of asking questions and solving problems
experiment a test to answer a scientific question in a measurable way; usually an experiment tries to figure out a cause and- effect relationship
lab report a written record of how an experiment was done
hypothesis a prediction (based on background knowledge) to answer the question in an experiment
manipulated variable part of an experiment you change on purpose (in a measurable way) also called the “independent” variable
responding variable part of an experiment that changes because of the manipulated variable…also called the “dependent”
parts of an experiment that are kept the same
control group the set-up(s) in an experiment that are kept constant (no
manipulated variable)
the set-up(s) in an experiment that are changed
(manipulated variable only)
procedure numbered instructions that tell exactly what was done in
an experiment (may include diagrams)
data / results measurable data or descriptive observations collected in
an experiment
analysis written summary of the data/results from an experiment
conclusion answer to the question in a lab, it tells whether or not the
hypothesis was correct
yeast unicellular member of kingdom fungi that consumes
carbohydrates and gives off CO2 during a type of
respiration called fermentation
Created by: phly95